Glossary

M&R

Maintenance And Repair

M(MN)

Main

m-Commerce

Mobile commerce applications involve using a mobile phone to carry out financial transactions. This usually means making a payment for goods or transferring funds electronically. Transferring money between accounts and paying for purchases are electronic commerce applications. An emerging application, electronic commerce has been facilitated by developments in other areas in the mobile world, such as dual slot phones and other smarter terminals, and more standardized protocols which allow greater interactivity and therefore, more sophisticated service.

M-Day Calendar

See Manufacturing Calendar

M/E or ME

Main Engine.

M/R

Mate/s Receipt.

M/S

Motor Ship

M/T

Metric tons (2,250 lbs.).

M/T or MT

Motor Tanker

M/V

Motor Vessel

M/V

Motor Vessel (Diesel)

M/V or MV

Motor Vessel

Machine Downtimes

Time during which a machine cannot be utilized. Machine downtimes may occur during breakdowns, maintenance, changeovers, etc.

Machine-to-Machine interface

A term describing the process whereby machines are remotely monitored for status and problems reported and resolved automatically or maintenance scheduled by the monitoring systems.

Macro Environment

The environment external to a business, including technological, economic, natural, and regulatory forces that marketing efforts cannot control.

MAFF

Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food

MAIB

Marine Accident Investigation Branch

Main Aisle

A passageway wide enough to permit the easy flow of equipment, supplies, and personnel, it generally runs the length of the building.

Mainframe

A term sometimes generically used to refer to an organization’s central computer system. Specifically the largest class of computer systems manufactured.

Maintenance, Repair, and Operating supplies

Items used in support of general operations and maintenance such as maintenance supplies, spare parts, and consumables used in the manufacturing process and supporting operations.

Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Supplies (MRO)

Items used in support of general operations and maintenance, such as maintenance supplies, spare parts, and consumables used in the manufacturing process and supporting operations.

Major Carrier

A for-hire certificated air carrier that has annual operating revenues of $1 billion or more; the carrier usually operates between major population centers.

Make to Order (Manufacture to Order)

A manufacturing process strategy where the trigger to begin manufacture of a product is an actual customer order or release rather than a market forecast. For make-to-order products, more than 20% of the value added takes place after the receipt of the order or release, and all necessary design and process documentation is available at the time of order receipt.

Make to Stock (Manufacture to Stock)

A manufacturing process strategy where finished product is continually held in plant or warehouse inventory to fulfill expected incoming orders or releases based on a forecast.

Make-or-Buy Decision

The act of deciding whether to produce an item internally or buy it from an outside supplier. Factors to consider in the decision include costs, capacity availability, proprietary and/or specialized knowledge, quality considerations, skill requirements, volume, and timing.

Make-to-Order

A manufacturing process strategy where the trigger to begin manufacture of a product is an actual customer order or release, rather than a market forecast. For Make-to-Order products, more than 20% of the valueadded takes place after the receipt of the order or release, and all necessary design and process documentation is available at time of order receipt.

Make-to-Order

See Make-to-Order

Make-to-Stock

A manufacturing method in which finished goods are produced and stocked prior to receipt of a customer order. It uses a forecast based on past demand history to initiate production of end items when inventory has fallen below desired levels, instead of waiting until a final quantity and configuration is described on a customer order.

Management of All Logistics

The effective management of all costs associated with logistics functions and activities so as to minimize their sum across the product supply chain.

Manifest

A document which describes individual orders contained within a shipment.

MANTECH

Manufacturing Technology Program.

Manufacture Cycle Time

The average time between commencement and completion of a manufacturing process, as it applies to make-to-stock products.Calculation: [Average # of units in WIP]/[Average daily output in units]

Manufacturer

One who produces a product through assembly or combination of raw materials or components. In some instances the manufacturer may not engage in the production except to control and specify the method and design of the item.

Manufacturer’s Representative

One who sells goods for several firms but does not take title to them.

Manufacturer's Representative

One who sells goods for several firms but does not take title to them.

Manufacturing Calendar

A calendar used in inventory and production planning functions that consecutively numbers only the working days so that the component and work order scheduling may be done based on the actual number of workdays available. Synonyms: M-Day Calendar, Planning Calendar, Production Calendar, Shop Calendar

Manufacturing Capital Asset Value

‘The asset value of the ”Manufacturing fixed assets” after allowance for depreciation. Examples of equipment are SMT placement machines, conveyors, Auto guided vehicles, robot cells, testers, X-ray solder machines, Burn-in chambers, Logic testers, Auto packing equipment, PLC station controllers, Scanning equipment, PWB magazines.’

Manufacturing Execution Systems

Programs and systems that participate in shop floor control, including programmed logic controllers and process control computers for direct and supervisory control of manufacturing equipment, process information systems that gather historical performance information, then generate reports, graphical displays, and alarms that inform operations personnel what is going on in the plant currently and a very short history into the past. Quality control information is also gathered and a laboratory information management system may be part of this configuration to tie process conditions to the quality data that are generated. Thereby, cause-and-effect relationships can be determined. The quality data at times affect the control parameters that are used to meet product specifications either dynamically or off line.

Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES)

Programs and systems that participate in shop-floor control, including programmed logic controllers and process control computers for direct and supervisory control of manufacturing equipment; process information systems that gather historical performance information, then generate reports; graphical displays; and alarms that inform operations personnel what is going on in the plant currently and a short history into the past. Quality control information is also gathered - a laboratory information management system may be part of this configuration to tie process conditions to the quality data that are generated. Thereby, cause-and-effect relationships can be determined. The quality data at times affect the control parameters that are used to meet product specifications, either dynamically or offline.

Manufacturing Lead Time

The total time required to manufacture an item, exclusive of lower-level purchasing lead time. For make-to-order products, it's the length of time between the release of an order to the production process and shipment to the final customer. For make-to-stock products, it's the length of time between the release of an order to the production process and receipt into finished goods inventory. Included are order preparation time, queue time, set-up time, run time, move time, inspection time, and put-away time. Synonym: Manufacturing Cycle Time.

Manufacturing Resource Planning

A method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning in dollars, and has a simulation capability to answer what-if questions. It is made up of a variety of processes, each linked together: business planning, production planning , master production scheduling, material requirements planning, capacity requirements planning, and the execution support systems for capacity and material. Output from these systems is integrated with financial reports such as the business plan, purchase commitment report, shipping budget, and inventory projections in dollars. Manufacturing resource planning is a direct outgrowth and extension of closed-loop MRP.

Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II)

A method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning in dollars, and has a simulation capability to answer what-if questions. It consists of a variety of processes, each linked together: business planning, production planning (sales and operations planning) , master production scheduling, material requirements planning, capacity requirements planning, and the execution support systems for capacity and material. Output from these systems is integrated with financial reports, such as business plan, purchase commitment report, shipping budget, and inventory projections in dollars. Manufacturing resource planning is a direct outgrowth and extension of closed-loop MRP.

MAP

Military Assistance Program.

Mapping

An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet 3 objectives:

Mar Ad

See Maritime Administration.

MARAD

Maritime Administration (U.S.)

MARBS

Marine Assistance Request Broadcasts.

MARDEZ

Maritime Defense Zones

Marginal Cost

The cost to produce one additional unit of output. The change in total variable cost resulting from a one-unit change in output.

MARIENV

International Conference on technologies for Marine Environment preservation.

Marine Cargo Insurance - Average: Average

A term in marine cargo insurance signifying loss or damage to merchandise.

Marine Cargo Insurance - FPA: FPA- Free of Particular Average

A provision in a marine cargo insurance policy that no claim shall be paid for damage to goods in the course of a voyage unless a loss is sustained that totals or exceeds a certain percentage of the value as specified in the policy. The object of such a provision is the avoidance of petty claims.

Marine Cargo Insurance - General Average

A loss arising out of a voluntary sacrifice made of any part of a shipment or cargo to prevent loss of the whole and for the benefit of all persons concerned.

Marine Cargo Insurance - Open Policy: A

cargo insurance policy that is an open contract; i.e. it provides protection for all of an exporter

Marine insurance

Ensure materials and products are available for production and delivery to customers.

MARITECH

Maritime Systems Technology program (U.S.)

Maritime Administration

Maintain the lowest possible level of inventory.

Maritime Administration (Mar Ad)

A U.S. government agency, not actively involved in vessel operation, that administers laws for maintenance of a merchant marine for the purposes of defense and commerce.

Market Demand

In marketing, the total demand that would exist within a defined customer group in a given geographical area during a particular time period given a known marketing program.

Market Dominance

The absence of effective competition for railroads from other carriers and modes for the traffic to which the rail rate applies. The Staggers Act stated that market dominance does not exist if the rate is below the revenue-to-variable-cost ratio of 160 percent in 1981 and 170 percent in 1983.

Market Place

The commerce sources which determine availability of goods and services and the costs that are derived from the rate of trade with those sources.

Market Segment

A group of potential customers sharing some measurable characteristics based on demographics, psychographics, lifestyle, geography, benefits, etc.

Market-Positioned Warehouse

Warehouse positioned to replenish customer inventory assortments and afford maximum inbound transport consolidation economies from inventory origin points with relatively short-haul local delivery.

Marking

Letters, numbers, and other symbols placed on cargo packages to make easy identification.

Marks and Numbers

Marks and numbers placed on goods used to identify a shipment or parts of a shipment.

MARPOL

Marine Pollution Prevention (International Convention) MARS Nautical Institute Marine Accident Reporting System

Marquis Partners

Key strategic relationships. This has emerged as perhaps the key competitive advantage and barrier to entry of e-marketplaces. Get the big players in the fold first, offering equity if necessary.

MARS

Marine Accident Reporting Scheme Created by the Nautical Institute NI, the report are anonymous and do not provide any name of persons, ships or companies. The are published monthly in the NI publication 'Seaways'.The reports can be Emailed to mars@nautinst.org or faxed to Captain R.Beedel FNI 17 Estuary Drive Felixstowe Suffolk IP11 9TL UK.

Marshaller or Marshalling Agent

This is a service unique to international trade and relates to an individual or firm that specializes in one or more of the activities preceding Main Carriage, such as consolidation, packing, marking, sorting of merchandise, inspection, storage, etc. References state that Marshaling Agent, Consolidation Agent and Freight Forwarder all have the same meaning.

MAS

Mandatory Annual Survey (SOLAS,MARPOL)

Mass Customization

The creation of a high-volume product with large variety so that a customer may specify his or her exact model out of a large volume of possible end items, while manufacturing cost is low because of the large volume. An example is a personal computer order in which the customer may specify processor speed, memory size, hard disk size and speed, removable storage device characteristics, and many other options when PCs are assembled on one line and at a low cost.

Master Air Waybill

The air waybill of lading that provides data on a consolidated shipment of goods. The consolidator is shown as the shipper.

Master Air Waybill (MAWB)

The bill of lading issued by air carriers to their customers.

Master pack

A large box that is used to pack a number of smaller boxes or containers. Aids in protecting the smaller cartons or packages and reduces the number of cartons to be handled during the material handling process.

Master Production Schedule

The master level or top level schedule used to set the production plan in a manufacturing facility.

MAT

Materials

Material Acquisition Costs

One of the elements comprising a company's total supply chain management costs. These costs consist of the following:

1. Materials (Commodity) Management and Planning All costs associated with the supplier sourcing, contract negotiation and qualification, and the preparation, placement, and tracking of a purchase order - including all costs related to buyer/planners.

2. Supplier Quality Engineering: The costs associated with the determination, development/certification, and monitoring of suppliers' capabilities to fully satisfy the applicable quality and regulatory requirements.

3. Inbound Freight and Duties: Freight costs associated with the movement of material from a vendor to the buyer, including all associated administrative tasks. Duties are those fees and taxes levied by government for moving purchased material across international borders. Customs broker fees should also be included in this category.

4. Receiving and Put Away: all costs associated with taking possession of material and storing it. Note - inventory-carrying costs are normally covered in a separate worksheet.

5. Incoming Inspection: All costs associated with the inspection and testing of received materials to verify compliance with specifications.

Material Index

The ratio of the sum of the localized raw material weights to the weight of the finished product.

Material Requirements Planning

A set of techniques that uses bill of material data, inventory data, and the master production schedule to calculate requirements for materials. It is a software based production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Although it is not common nowadays, it is possible to conduct the MRP calculation by hand as well.

Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

A decision-making methodology used to determine the timing and quantities of materials to purchase.

Material Safety Data Sheet

A document that is part of the materials information system and accompanies the product. Prepared by the manufacturer, the MSDS provides information regarding the safety and chemical properties and the long-term storage, handling, and disposal of the product. Among other factors, the MSDS describes the hazardous components of a product, how to treat leaks, spills, and fires, and how to treat improper human contact with the product. Also see: Hazardous Materials

Materials Handling

The physical handling of products and materials between procurement and shipping.

Materials Management

Inbound logistics from suppliers through the production process. The movement and management of materials and products from procurement through production.

Materials Planning

The materials management function that attempts to coordinate materials supply with materials demand.

Matrix Organizational Structure

An organization structure in which two (or more) channels of command budget responsibility, and performance measurement exist simultaneously. For example, both product and functional forms of organization could be implemented simultaneously; in other words, the product and functional managers have equal authority and employees report to both managers.

MAUL

(See MALL.)

MAWB

See Master Air Waybill.

MAWB

Master Air Waybill

MAX

The lowest inventory quantity that is desired at a ship to location or selling location. This quantity will over-ride the forecast number if the forecast climbs above the MAX. Maximum stock

Maximum Inventory

The planned maximum allowable inventory for an item based on its planned lot size and target safety stock.

Maximum Order Quantity

An order quantity modifier applied after the lot size has been calculated that limits the order quantity to a pre-established maximum.

MAYDAY

Distress Signal (spoken word).

MB

Merchant Broker

Mb

Megabyte

MC

Installations character for Centralized Monitoring and Control systems for machinery.

MCA

Marine Coastguard Agency

MCDS

Modular Cargo Delivery System.

MCHY

Machinery.

Mcr C

Motorcar Carrier.

Mcr F

Motorcar Ferry.

MCRC

Marine Casualty Response Center.

MCT

Marine Custody Transfer

MCTM

Marine Custody Transfer Measurement

Md C

Module Carrier.

MD S

Melaks and Dumai Service

MDO

Marine Diesel Oil

ME

Main Engine

Mean

The arithmetic average of a group of values. Synonym: Arithmetic Mean.

Measurement Ton

Forty cubic feet; used in water transportation ratemaking.

MeCA

Marine eCommerce Association

Median

The middle value in a set of measured values when the items are arranged in order of magnitude. If there is no single middle value, the median is the mean of the two middle values.

Medium Lot Storage

A medium lot is generally defined as a quantity of material which will require one to three pallet stacks stored to maximum height. Thus, the term refers to relatively small lots as distinguished from definitely large or small lots.

MEDPID

EDIFACT Person identification message

MEDPRE

EDIFACT Medical prescription message

MEDREQ

EDIFACT Medical service request message

MEDRPT

EDIFACT Medical service report message

MEDRUC

EDIFACT Medical resource usage and cost message

MEEMA

Marine Engine and Equipment Manufacturers Association

MEHRA

Marine Environmentally High Risk Areas.

MEO

Medium earth orbit (satellite configuration)

MEP

Marine Environmental Protection.

MEPC

Maritime Environment Protection CommitteeIMO branch dealing, among other, with the construction of tankers. The number of the meeting is often added to the acronym so that in the Autumn 2000 the next meeting will be MEPC46.

MEQPOS

EDIFACT Means of transport and equipment position message

Merchant Haulage

Inland transportation performed by an inland carrier contracted by and for the account of the shipper or consignee.

MERCOSUR

South American Common Market.

Merge In Transit

The process of 'merging' shipments from suppliers and going directly to the buyer or to the store, bypassing the seller. A 'drop shipment' from several vendors to one buyer.

Merger

The combination of two or more carriers into one company that will own, manage, and operate the properties that previously operated separately.

Merit System

The system of employee promotion that is based upon an evaluation of abilities and accomplishments rather than personal favoritism or political appointment.

MERPAC

Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee

MES

See Manufacturing Execution Systems.

MES

1.Marine Evacuation System.2.Mobile Earth Station

Message

The EDIFACT term for a transaction set. A message is the collection of data, organized in segments, exchanged by trading partners engaged in EDI. Typically, a message is an electronic version of a document associated with a common business transaction, such as a purchase order or shipping notice. A message begins with a message header segment, which identifies the start of the message (e.g., the series of characters representing one purchase order) . The message header segment also carries the message type code, which identifies the business transaction type. EDIFACT's message header segment is called UNH; in ANSI X12 protocol, the message header is called ST. A message ends with a message trailer segment, which signals the end of the message (e.g., the end of one purchase order) . EDIFACT's message trailer is labeled UNT; the ANSI X12 message trailer is referred to as SE.

Meta Tag

‘An optional HTML tag that is used to specify information about a web document. Some search engines use ‘’spiders” to index web pages. These spiders read the information contained within a page’s META tag. So in theory, an HTML or web page author has the ability to control how their site is indexed by search engines and how and when it will ”come up” on a user’s search. The META tag can also be used to specify an HTTP or URL address for the page to ”jump” to after a certain amount of time. This is known as Client-Pull. What this means, is a web page author can control the amount of time a web page is up on the screen as well as where the browser will go next.’

Metrics

See Performance Measures.

MF

Medium Frequency

Micro-Land Bridge

An intermodal movement in which the shipment is moved from a foreign country to the U.S. by water and then moved across the U.S. by railroad to an interior, non-port city, or vice versa for exports from a non-port city.

Mileage Allowance

An allowance, based upon distance, that railroads give to shippers using private railcars.

Mileage Rate

A rate based upon the number of miles the commodity is shipped.

Milk run

A regular route for pickup of mixed loads from several suppliers. For example, instead of each of five suppliers sending a truckload per week to meet the weekly needs of the customer, one truck visits each of the suppliers on a daily basis before delivering to the customer’s plant. Five truckloads per week are still shipped, but each truckload contains the daily requirement from each supplier. Also see: Consolidation

Mill Broke

Waste paper that is generated in the paper manufacturing process and then recycled or introduced again into the development or repulping process.

Min Max System

‘A type of order point replenishment system where the ”min” (minimum) is the order point, and the ”max” (maximum) is the ”order up to” inventory level. The order quantity is variable and is the result of the max minus the available and on-order inventory. An order is recommended when the sum of the available and on-order inventory is at or below the min.’

Mini-Land bridge

An intermodal movement in which the shipment is moved from a foreign country to the U.S. by water and then moved across the U.S. by railroad to a destination that is a port city, or vice versa for exports from a U.S. port city.

Minimum Charge

Least charge for which a shipment will be handled.

Minimum Inventory

The amount of stock on hand that has been designated as safety stock.

Minimum Truckload Weight

Least weight at which a shipment is handled at a Truckload (TL) rate.

Minimum Weight

The shipment weight the carrier's tariff specifies as the minimum weight required to use the TL or CL rate; the rate discount volume.

Minority Business

A business that is owned or controlled by a person or persons who are certified to have minority status.

Misguided Capacity Plans

Plans or forecasts for capacity utilization, which are based on inaccurate assumptions or input data.

Mission Critical

Is any equipment, asset, process, or item that is required for a customer to maintain operations.

Mixed Loads

The movement of both regulated and exempt commodities in the same vehicle at the same time.

Mixed Shipment

Shipment consisting of items described in and rated under two or more rate items within a tariff.

MLB

Mainland Bridge

MLB

An abbreviation for Mini Land Bridge Containers moving from a foreign country by vessel, and then sent to an inland point in the U.S. or elsewhere by land transportation (rail or truck). See also Land Bridge.

MLO

Main Line Operators

Modal split

The relative use made of the modes of transportation, the statistics used include ton-miles, passenger-miles, and revenue.

Modal Split:

The relative use that companies make of transportation modes; the statistics include ton-miles, passenger-miles, and revenue.

Mode

See Transportation Mode.

MOLCHOPT

More or Less Charterers Option

MOLOO

More or Less Owners Option

Monopoly

An unfair advantage or control of the market place with regard to the trade of certain goods or services. This type of exclusive marketing advantage serves to restrict competition in that particular activity.

Mother Vessel

Main ocean vessel in a liner service designated to move containers from set origin points to set destination ports/points on a regular basis.

Motor Carrier

An enterprise that offers service via motor carriage.

Move Management

Customized and standard relocation services to meet the customer needs for availability, asset protection, data protection, and time constraints.

Move ticket

A document used to move inventory within a facility. Warehouse management systems use move tickets to direct and track material movements. In a paperless environment the electronic version of a move ticket is often called a task or a trip.

Movement of Goods:

The transfer of goods from one location to another.

MOVINS

EDIFACT Stowage instruction message

MPS

see Master Production Schedule

MRO

See Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Supplies.

MRO items

Maintenance, repair, and operating items--office supplies, for example.

MRP

See Material Requirements Planning.

MRP

Material Requirements Planning

MRP-II

See Manufacturing Resource Planning.

MSCONS

EDIFACT Metered services consumption report message

MSDS

See Material Safety Data Sheet.

MSDS

Material Safety Data Sheet

MSI Plessey

This barcode is a variable length barcode that can encode up to 15 numeric digits. Checksum generation is dependent on the value of the checksum parameter. The following table indicates the value of the checksum property and the type of checksum created. Setting, Description, 0, one modulus 10 checksum, 1, two modulus 10 checksums, 2, one modulus 11 checksum/one modulus 10 checksum.

MT

Metric Ton. 1 MT = 2,204.62lbs or 35.314 cft.

MTO

Multimode Transport Operator

MTO

see Make-to-Order

MTS

see Make-to-Stock

Multi-Block Course Pattern

An arrangement of warehousing units in which two uni-block patterns are used.

Multi-Currency

The ability to process orders using a variety of currencies for pricing and billing.

Multi-destination

A single shipment that includes multiple deliveries at separate destination locations.

Multi-Language

Pertaining to the ability to process orders in many different country-specific languages using voice and text.

Multi-origin

A single shipment that includes multiple pick-ups at separate origin locations.

Multi-Skilled

Pertaining to individuals who are certified to perform a variety of tasks.

Multi-Step Competitive Bidding

A competitive purchasing method requesting that bidders submit a technical proposal as the initial process. Negotiations may take place with regard to technicalities and job completion processes. Following the first step a competitive price bid is requested. The price bid is not negotiable.

Multinational Company

A company that both produces and markets products in different countries.

Multiple Award

Awarding contracts to more than one bidder for the same types of goods or similar items. This would be appropriate under circumstances when a single contractor would not be able to adequately serve the entire area that needs to be provided for.

Multiple-Car Rate

A railroad rate that is lower for shipping more than one carload at a time.

MW

Motor Whaler.

MWB

Multipurpose Work Boat.

MX

Mexico (Flag)