Institute Warranty Limits


Independent Action rates


Interpretations and Insstructions.


International Association of Classification SocietiesGrouping of the main classification societies (about 10 in 1997) in order to raise the standards.


Intra Asia Discussion Agreement


IADC International Association of Dredging (also Diving) Contractors


Inflation Adjustment Factor.


International Association of Institutes of Navigation


International Association of Lighthouse Authorities


International Association of Maritime Institutes


International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual


International Association of Ports and Harbors


International Association for Sea Survival Training


International Air Transport Association


In Accordance With


Intermediate Bulk Container


International Code for Vessels Carrying Chemicals in Bulk (IMO)

IBC Code

International Bulk Chemical CodeCode for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk. (Often wrongly defined in BA publications and charts as International Bulk Carrier code)


Integrated bridge control system


International Bunker Industry Association Ltd


Integrated Bridge System


International Cargo Advisory Bureau


International Civil Aviation Organization


International Convention on the Arrest of Seagoing Ships1952 Allows the creditors of shipping debts to present his claim in any country signatory of the convention, and arrest the vessel if needed


EDIFACT Insurance claim assessment and reporting message


International Chamber of Commerce


International Chamber of Commerce


International Council of Cruise Lines


Institute of Civil Engineers


International Cargo Handling Coordination Association


International Court of Justice


Internet Content provider


International Chamber of Shipping



Information and Communications Technology


Owner Identification Number

Identical Bid

A bid which is essentially the same as another with regard to products bid.


Electrotechnical Commission


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers


Independent Economic Unit (Employed Person)


EDIFACT Forwarding and consolidation summary message


Intermediate Fuel Oil


Interim Final Rule


International Federation of Ship Master's Association. Organization grouping all the national Master's association formed in 1974. Established in London. Over 8.000 shipmaster's from more than 40 countries are affiliated to IFSMA. Was granted Consultative status at IMO in 1975.


EDIFACT Forwarding and transport shipment charge calculation message


EDIFACT Dangerous goods notification message


EDIFACT International transport freight costs and other charges message


EDIFACT Dangerous cargo list message


EDIFACT Cargo insurance claims message


EDIFACT Arrival notice message


EDIFACT Booking confirmation message


EDIFACT Firm booking message


EDIFACT Provisional booking message


EDIFACT Consignment advice message


EDIFACT Instruction contract status message


EDIFACT International Forwarding And Transport


EDIFACT Instruction message


International Forest Product Transport Association


EDIFACT Forwarding and transport rate information message


EDIFACT Forwarding and transport schedule and availability information me


EDIFACT International multimodal status report message


EDIFACT International multimodal status request message


Inert Gas. Non reactive gas (Nitrogen, CO2) used to fill the tanks to prevent an accidental fire or explosion.


CodeInternational Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk,IMO

IGC Code

International Gas carrier Code. Code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying liquified gases in bulk.


Pallets and containers used in air transportation; the igloo shape fits the internal wall contours of a narrow-body airplane.


Inter-governmental organisation


Inert Gas System


International Hydrographic Bureau


EDIFACT Interactive health insurance eligibility and benefits inquiry and



International Harbour Masters' Association


International Hydrographic Organization


Institute of Internatioanl Container Lessors


International Institute of Marine Surveyors


Inter-Island Service in the Comoros.


Inter-Island Service in the Philippines area.


Inter-Island Sevice in Solomon.


International Longshoremen's Association


In Lieu of Dry Dock, Class survey, mostly underwater, which allows the shipowner to postpone a dry dock.


International Lifeboat Federation


International Labour Organization


Institute of London Underwriters


International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union

Image Processing

allows a company to take electronic photographs of documents. The electronic photograph then can be stored in a computer and retrieved from computer storage to replicate the document on a printer. The thousands of bytes of data composing a single document are encoded in an optical disk. Many carriers now use image processing to provide proof-ofdelivery documents to a shipper. The consignee signs an electronic pad that automatically digitizes a consignee’s signature for downloading into a computer. A copy of that signature then can be produced to demonstrate that a delivery took place.


Institute of Marine Engineers


See International Maritime Bureau.


International Maritime Bureau


see Intermodal Marketing Company


International Marine Contractors Association


International Maritime Control Organisation. See IMO.

IMCO Classification

International Maritime Control Organisation classification for hazardous cargo.


International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code


International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code


International Monetary Fund.


International Medical Guide for Ships


International Maritime Industries Forum


International Maritime Lecturers Association


International Maritime Law Institute (IMO)


Inmarsat Mobile Number


See International Maritime Organization.


International Maritime Organization


International Maritime Organization.United Nation agency created the 6 March 1948, located in London and taking care of all shipping matters.


International Maritime Pilot's Association. Located in Belgium, but mostly managed from the Netherlands.


EDIFACT EDI implementation guide definition message


Movement of products from one country into another. The import of automobiles from Germany into the US is an example.

Import/Export License

Official authorization issued by a government allowing the shipping or delivery of a product across national boundaries.

Importation Point

The location where goods will be cleared for importation into a country.


Goods and services which one country’s residents purchase and transport from another country into their own country.


With regard to online advertising, it is the number of times an ad banner is downloaded and presumably seen by users. Guaranteed impressions refer to the minimum number of times an ad banner will be seen by users.


Information Management Services.


India (Flag)

In Bond

Goods are held or transported In-Bond under customs control either until import duties or other charges are paid, or to avoid paying the duties or charges until a later date.

In-Transit Inventory

Material moving between two or more locations, usually separated geographically; for example, finished goods being shipped from a plant to a distribution center. In-transit inventory is an easily overlooked component of total supply chain availability.




Import Shipment.

Inbound logistics

The management of materials from suppliers and vendors into production processes or storage facilities.

Incentive Rate

A rate that induces the shipper to ship heavier volumes per shipment.

Income statement

A financial statement showing the net income for a business over a given period of time. See also balance sheet, funds flow statement.


International terms of sale developed by the International Chamber of Commerce to define sellers' and buyers' responsibilities.


International Commercial terms


International Commercial Terms





Independent Action

A carrier that is a rate bureau member may publish a rate that differs from the rate the rate bureau publishes.

Independent Carrier

Carrier that is not a member of a shipping conference.

Independent Demand Item Management Models

Models for the management of items whose demand is not strongly influenced by other items managed by the same company. These models can be characterized as follows: (1) stochastic or deterministic, depending on the variability of demand and other factors, (2) fixed quantity, fixed cycle, or hybrid - (optional replenishment). Also see: Fixed Reorder Cycle Inventory Model, Fixed Reorder Quantity Inventory Model, Optional Replenishment Model

Independent Trading Exchange

Often used synonymously with B2B, e-marketplace or Virtual Commerce Network . ITE is a more precise term, connoting many-to-many transactions, whereas the others do not specify the transactions.

Independent Trading Exchange (ITE)

Often used synonymously with B2B, e-marketplace, or Virtual Commerce Network (VCN) . ITE is a more precise term, connoting many-to-many transactions, whereas the others do not specify the transactions.

Indirect Cost

A resource or activity cost that cannot be directly traced to a final cost object since no direct or repeatable cause-and-effect relationship exists. An indirect cost uses an assignment or allocation to transfer cost.

Indirect Retail Locations

A retail location that ultimately sells your product to consumers, but who purchases your products from an intermediary, like a distributor or wholesaler.

Indirect/Distributor Channel

Your company sells and ships to the distributor. The distributor sells and ships to the end user. This may occur in multiple stages. Ultimately, your product may pass through the Indirect/Distributor Channel and arrive at a retail outlet. Order information in this channel may be transmitted by electronic means. These means may include EDI, brokered systems, or linked electronic systems.

Ineligible Bidder

A non-responsible bidder or a supplier who has demonstrated a poor record of performance or proven to be financially unstable. Otherwise a bidder who has been removed from the prospective vendors list for non-compliance.


EDIFACT Infrastructure condition message


EDIFACT Enterprise accounting information message

Infinite Loading

Calculation of the capacity required at work centers in the time periods required regardless of the capacity available to perform this work.

Informal Bid

A telephone quotation or an unsealed pricing offer. A bid for a purchasing intention that is less than the dollar amount required for formal sealed bids.


The data, plus the interpretation necessary to understand it.

Information System (I/S)

Managing the flow of data in an organization in a systematic, structured way to assist in planning, implementing, and controlling.

Information System Agreement (ISA0

Leading organisation of ocean carriers that develops, promotes and implements electronic commerce solutions for the maritime industry.

Information systems

Managing the flow of data in an organization in a systematic, structured way to assist in planning, implementing, and controlling.

Information Technology

‘The branch of engineering that deals with the use of computers and telecommunications to retrieve and store and transmit information. It is a term that encompasses all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange, and use information in its various forms (business data, voice conversations, still images, motion pictures, multimedia presentations, and other forms, including those not yet conceived). It’s a convenient term for including both telephony and computer technology in the same word. It is the technology that is driving what has often been called ”the information revolution.”’

Inherent Advantage

The cost and service benefits of one mode compared with other modes.

Inland Bill of Lading

The carriage contract used in transport from a shipping point overland to the exporter's international carrier location.

Inland Carrier

An enterprise that offers overland service to or from a point of export.

Inland Point Intermodal

Cargo moving via land from/to an inland point. See Micro Bridge.


EDIFACT Instruction to dispatch message


The opposite of outsourcing, that is, a service performed in house.

Inspection Certificate

A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition immediately prior to shipment.

Inspection Report

To inform a procurement entity that an examination or testing of commodities on contract has taken place. Such a report would further inform the authority of the quality or condition of such goods.


EDIFACT Insurance premium message


EDIFACT Inspection request message


EDIFACT Inspection report message


Providing a service by professional management teams to knock-down, move, set-up and reconfiguration services.


A system of protection against loss under which a number of parties agree to pay certain sums (premiums) for a guarantee that they will be compensated under certain conditions for specified loss and damage.

Insurance Certificate

A document issued to the consignee to certify that insurance is provided to cover loss of or damage to the cargo while in transit.


EDIFACT Interchange Control Structures

Integrated Carrier

An airfreight company that offers a blend of transportation services such as air carriage, freight forwarding, and ground handling.

Integrated Carriers

Carriers that have both air and ground fleets or other combinations, such as sea, rail and truck. They usually handle thousands of small parcels an hour.

Integrated Logistics

A comprehensive, system-wide view of the entire supply chain as a single process, from raw materials supply through finished goods distribution. All functions that make up the supply chain are managed as a single entity rather than managing individual functions separately.

Integrated Services Digital Network

A computer term describing the networks and equipment for integrated broadband transmissions of data, voice, and image, from rates of 144 Kbps to 2 Mbps. ISDN allows integration of data, voice, and video over the same digital links.

Integrated tow barge

A series of barges that are connected together to operate as one unit.


Improving information flows and linakges to create integrated information flows and operations.

Intellectual Property

Property of an enterprise or individual which is typically maintained in a digital form. This may


In EDI, the exchange of electronic information between companies. Also, the group of transaction sets transmitted from one sender to one receiver at one time. Delineated by interchange control segments.

Intercoastal carriers

Water carriers that transport freight between East and West Coast ports, usually by way of the Panama Canal.

Intercorporate hauling

A private carrier hauling a subsidiary's goods and charging the subsidiary a fee; this is legal if the subsidiary is wholly owned or if the private carrier has common carrier authority.

Interleaved 2 of 5

This is strictly a numeric barcode. Each encoded character is made up of five elements, two are wide and three are narrow. The number of characters to be printed must be an even number. If the number of characters to be printed is odd, a zero will be appended to the beginning of the code.


The practice of assigning an employee multiple tasks which are performed concurrently.


Two or more motor carriers working together to haul a shipment to a destination. Carriers may interchange equipment but usually they rehandle the shipment without transferring the equipment.

Interlocking Load Pattern

A method of arranging every other course in a unitized load to stabilize the load. Every other course is turned 90 degrees when uni-block patterns are used. Every other course is reversed using multi-block, pinwheel or irregular patterns.

Intermediate Destination

A stopping point for a shipment prior to the final destination.

Intermediately Positioned Warehouse

A warehouse located between customers and manufacturing plants to provide increased customer service and reduced distribution cost.

Intermittent-Flow, Fixed-Path Equipment

Materials handling devices that include bridge cranes, monorails, and stacker cranes.


Coordinated transport of freight, especially in connection with relatively long-haul movements, using any combination of freight forwarders, piggy-back, containerisation, air freight, assemblers, rail and road.

Intermodal Container Transfer Facility

A facility where cargo is transferred from one mode of transportation to another, usually from ship or truck to rail.

Intermodal Marketing Company

An intermediary that sells intermodal services to shippers.

Intermodal Marketing Company (IMC)

An intermediary that sells intermodal services to shippers.

Intermodal Transport Unit

Container, swap body or semi-trailer/goods road motor vehicle suitable for intermodal transport.

Intermodal Transportation

Transporting freight by using two or more transportation modes, such as by truck and rail or truck and oceangoing vessel.

Internal Customer

The recipient (person or department) of another person's or department's output (good, service, or information) within an organization. Also see: Customer.

Internal Labor and Overhead

The portion of COGS that is typically reported as labor and overhead, less any costs already classified as 'outsourced.'

Internal Water Carriers

Water carriers that operate over internal, navigable rivers such as the Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri.


Ship & Port Security Cade

International Air Transport Association

An international air carrier rate bureau for passenger and freight movements.

International Civil Aeronautics Organization

An international agency responsible for air safety and for standardizing air traffic control, airport design, and safety features worldwide.

International Freight Forwarders

Freight torwarders that handle booking, paperwork and consolidation of exports.

International Import Certificate

A document required by the importing country indicating that the importing country recognizes that a controlled shipment is entering their country. The importing country pledges to monitor the shipment and prevent its re-export, except in accordance with its own export control regulations.

International Maritime Bureau (IMB)

A special division of the International Chamber of Commerce.

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

A United Nations-affiliated organization representing all maritime countries in matters affecting maritime transportation, including the movement of dangerous goods. The organization also is involved in deliberations on marine environmental pollution.

International Procurement Organization

A combined procurement, materials engineering, and logistics team that is located in the supplier’s country of export and hired by the importer .

International Standards Organization

An organization within the United Nations to which all national and other standard setting bodies defer. Develops and monitors international standards, including OSI, EDIFACT, and X.400

International Standards Organization (ISO)

An organization within the United Nations to which all national and other standard-setting bodies (should) defer. Develops and monitors international standards, including OSI, EDIFACT, and X.400.

International Transport Implementation Guidelines

ITIGG is an international group of experts engaged in the development and implementation of UN/EDIFACT-standard messages for electronic trading in the transport industry.ITIGG is a subgroup of D4, the UN/EDIFACT Message Development Group for Transport. ITIGG develops recommendations which provide software developers with a series of simple, straightforward tools to assist in designing applications which can be used for trading electronically throughout the world, and to clarify the intentions of the designers of key UN/EDIFACT messages.


A computer term which refers to an interconnected group of computer networks from all parts of the world, i.e., a network of networks. Accessed via a modem and an online service provider, it contains many information resources and acts as a giant electronic message routing system.

Interstate Commerce

The transportation of persons or property between states; in the course of the movement, the shipment crosses a state boundary.

Interstate Commerce Commission

An independent regulatory agency that implements federal economic regulations controlling railroads, motor carriers, pipelines, domestic water carriers, domestic surface freight forwarders, and brokers.

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

An independent regulatory agency that implements federal economic regulations controlling railroads, motor carriers, pipelines, domestic water carriers, domestic surface freight forwarders, and brokers.

Interstate System

The National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, 42,000 miles of four-lane, limited-access roads connecting major population centers.

Intra-Manufacturing Re-plan Cycle

Average elapsed time, in calendar days, between the time a regenerated forecast is accepted by the end-product manufacturing/assembly location, and the time that the revised plan is reflected in the Master Production Schedule of all the affected internal sub-assembly/component producing plant(s). (An element of Total Supply Chain Response Time)


A private network based on internet protocols such as TCP/IP but designed for information management within a company or organization. Its uses include such services as document distribution, software distribution, access to databases, and training. An intranet is so called becasue it looks like a World Wide Web site and is based on the same technologies, yet is strictly internal to the organization and is not connected to the Internet proper. Some intranets also offer access to the Internet, but such connections are directed through a firewall that protects the internal network from the external Web.

Intrastate Commerce

The transportation of persons or property between points within a state. A shipment between two points within a state may be interstate if the shipment had a prior or subsequent move outside of the state and the shipper intended an interstate shipment at time of shipment.

Intrinsic Forecast Method

In forecasting, a forecast based on internal factors, such as an average of past sales.


Raw materials, work in process, finished goods, and supplies required for creation of a company's goods and services. The number of units and/or value of the stock of goods held by a company.

Inventory Accuracy

When the on-hand quantity is equivalent to the perpetual balance (plus or minus the designated count tolerances) .

Inventory Balance Location Accuracy

When the on-hand quantity in the specified locations is equivalent to the perpetual balance (plus or minus the designated count tolerances).

Inventory Carrying Cost

One of the elements comprising a company's total supply chain management costs. These costs consist of the following:

1. Opportunity Cost:","The opportunity cost of holding inventory. This should be based on your company's own cost of capital standards using the following formula.Calculation: Cost of Capital x Average Net Value of Inventory

2. Shrinkage: The costs associated with breakage, pilferage, and deterioration of inventories. Usually pertains to the loss of material through handling damage, theft, or neglect.3. Insurance and Taxes:","The cost of insuring inventories and taxes associated with the holding of inventory.

4. Total Obsolescence for Raw Material, WIP, and Finished Goods Inventory:","Inventory reserves taken due to obsolescence and scrap and includes products exceeding the shelf life, i.e., spoils and is no good for use in its original purpose (do not include reserves taken for Field Service Parts) .

5. Channel Obsolescence:","Aging allowances paid to channel partners, provisions for buy-back agreements, etc. Includes all material that becomes obsolete while in a distribution channel. Usually, a distributor will demand a refund on material that goes bad (shelf life) or is no longer needed because of changing needs.

6. Field Service Parts Obsolescence:","Reserves taken due to obsolescence and scrap. field service parts are those inventories kept at locations outside the four walls of the manufacturing plant i.e., distribution center or warehouse.

Inventory Carrying Costs

Generally, carrying costs or holding costs are financial measurements that calculate all the costs associated with holding goods in storage. It includes inventory-in-storage, warehousing, obsolescence, deterioration, spoilage and labour costs, as well as insurance and taxes.

Inventory Control

Control of current stock (shelf, warehouse, on-order, etc.) so merchandise received conforms to sales demands, therefore out-of-stock or over-stocks are avoided.

Inventory Cost

The cost of holding goods, usually expressed as a percentage of the inventory value; includes the cost of capital, warehousing, taxes, insurance, depreciation, and obsolescence.

Inventory Days of Supply

Total gross value of inventory for the category (raw materials, work in process, partially finished goods, or fully-finished goods) at standard cost before reserves for excess and obsolescence. It includes only inventory that is on the books and currently owned by the business entity. Future liabilities such as consignments from suppliers are not included. Calculation: [5 Point Annual Average Gross Inventory] / [Calendar Year Value of Transfers / 365]

Inventory deployment

The process of strategically locating inventory at company and customer locations for the purpose of improving product availability and decreasing replenishment times.

Inventory Error

(1) Net Error (net book to physical difference): expressed as dollars or percent of inventory using the sum of all inventory loss and all inventory gains. (2) Absolute error: the sum of all errors without regard to sign. May be expressed as a percentage of inventory or in dollars as appropriate.

Inventory In Transit

Inventory in a carrier's possession, being transported to the buyer.

Inventory Management

The process of ensuring the availability of products through inventory administration.

Inventory Planning Systems

The systems that help to strategically balance the inventory policy and customer service levels throughout the supply chain. These systems usually calculate time-phased order quantities and safety stock using selected inventory strategies. Some inventory planning systems conduct what-if analysis and compare the current inventory policy with simulated inventory scenarios to improve the inventory ROI.

Inventory Turnover

See Inventory Turns.

Inventory Turnover (AKA Turnover, Turnover Rate, S

The mathematical determination of the number of times there has been a complete replacement of inventory stock in a year?s time. Usually determined on a dollar value basis.

Inventory Turns

The cost of goods sold divided by the average level of inventory on hand. This ratio measures how many times a company's inventory has been sold during a period of time. Operationally, inventory turns are measured as total throughput divided by average level of inventory for a given period. How many times a year the average inventory for a firm changes over or is sold.

Inventory Velocity

The speed at which inventory moves through a defined cycle (i.e., from receiving to shipping) .

Inventory, Days of

The number of days of inventory on-hand at any given time.


EDIFACT Invoice message


A detailed statement showing goods sold or shipped and amounts for each. The invoice is prepared by the seller and acts as the document that the buyer will use to make payment.

Invoice (Bill)

A list of charges or costs presented by a vendor to a purchaser, usually enumerating the items furnished, their unit and total costs, and a statement of the terms of the sale.


EDIFACT Inventory report message


Internet Protocol


see Intellectual Property


Interior Point Intermodal


see Inland Point Intermodal


see International Procurement Organization


EDIFACT Insurance policy administration message


EDIFACT Motor insurance policy message


Informal Rate Agreement

Irregular Route Carrier

A motor carrier that may provide service utilizing any route.


see Information systems


Integrated Server Digital Network


see Integrated Services Digital Network


EDIFACT Intermediary system enablement or disablement message


See International Standards Organization.


International Standard Organization

ISO 14000 Series Standards

A series of generic environmental management standards under development by the International Organization of Standardization which provide structure and systems for managing environmental compliance with legislative and regulatory requirements and affect every aspect of a company's environmental operations.

ISO 9000

A series of quality assurance standards compiled by the Geneva, Switzerland-based International Standards Organization. In the United States, ISO is represented by the American National Standards Institute based in Washington, DC.


Internet Service Provider


International Ship and Port Facility Security


Deliver to user.

Issuing Carrier

The carrier whose name is printed on the bill of lading and with whom the contract of carriage exists.


(1) Immediate Transportation Entry: refers to an IT entry (U.S. Customs). Allows the cargo to move beyond the vessel entry point in bond for customs clearance at the destination named in the I.T. movement from one customs district to another, e.g. cargo entering the U.S. at Los Angeles destined for Chicago can move to Chicago before having a customs inspection. 2. See Information Technology.


See Independent Trading Exchange.


Any unique manufactured or purchased part, material, intermediate, sub-assembly, or product.


International Transport Workers Federation


see International Transport Implementation Guidelines Group


International Trade Logistics


International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation


EDIFACT In transit report detail message


see Intermodal Transport Unit


International Telecomunication Union


Independent Tank, Wing


Iraqi Territorial Water Services.


Independent Tank, Common


Inshore Traffic Zone. Navigational lane which lies between a TSS and the coast. Can only be used by ships calling a port or place inside the zone.


If Used


If Used


International Underwiting Association


If Used, Half Time Actually to Count


If Used, Half Time Actually to Count


International Union of Marine Insurance


In Water Survey


Inland Water Service of Goa.