Glossary

C

Center.

C & F

See Cost and Freight

C&F

Cost, Insurance & Freight

C&F FO

Cost and Freight Free Out

C&F

Cost and Freight

C&F FO

Cost & Freight Free Out

C-TPAT

Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism

C-TPAT

see Customs-Trade Partnership against Terrorism

C.B.T./CBT

Clean Ballast Tanks

c.ft./cuft

Cubic Feet (ft3)

C.O.C.

Carrier's Own Container

C.O.D.

Cash On Delivery

C/O

Certificate of Origin

C/P (CP)

Charterparty or Charter Party

C/V

Consecutive Voyage

CA

Center Aft

Cab Extenders

Also called gap seals, which help to close the gap between the tractor and the trailer

CABAF

Currency And Bunker Adjustment Factor.

Cabotage

A federal law that requires coastal and inter-coastal traffic to be carried in U.S.-built and registered ships.

CAC

Citizens Advisory Council

CAD

See Cash Against Documents.

CAD

1.Cash Against Documents.2.Computer Aided Design

CADEX

See Customs Automated Data Exchange System

CAE

See Computer-Aided Engineering.

CAF

See Currency Adjustment Factor

CAF

Currency Adjustment Factor

Cage

(1) A secure enclosed area for storing highly valuable items(2) A pallet-sized platform with sides that can be secured to the tines of a forklift and in which a person may ride to inventory items stored well above the warehouse floor.

Caged

Referring to the practice of placing high-value or sensitive products in a fenced off area within a warehouse.

Calculation

To convert from working days to calendar days: if work week = 4 days, multiply by 1.75 = 5 days, multiply by 1.4 = 6 days, multiply by 1.17

Calendar Days

The conversion of working days to calendar days is based on the number of regularly scheduled workdays per week in your manufacturing calendar.Calculation: To convert from working days to calendar days: if work week = 4 days, multiply by 1.75; = 5 days, multiply by 1.4; = 6 days, multiply by 1.17

CALINF

EDIFACT Vessel call information message

Call Center

A facility housing personnel who respond to customer phone queries. These personnel may provide customer service or technical support. Call center services may be in house or outsourced. Synonym: Customer Interaction Center.

CAM

see Computer Aided Manufacturing

CAM

Computer Assisted Manufacture

CAMS

Client Account Management System.

Can-Order Point

An ordering system used when multiple items are ordered from one vendor. The can-order point is a point higher than the original order point. When any one of the items triggers an order by reaching the must-order point, all items below their can-order point are also ordered. The can-order point is set by considering is set by considering the additional holding cost that would be incurred if the item were ordered early.

Canadian Customs Invoice

A document required by Canadian Customs identifying shipper, seller, consignee, terms, date of shipment, material being sold/shipped, classification code, quantity, unit and total prices. Additional information may be required pertaining to the shipper and consignee arrangements.

CAORF

Computer-Assisted Operations Research Facility: A MarAd R&D facility located at U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, New York.

CAP

Condition Assessment Program. Structural assessment program devised by the classification societies ABS, LR, DNV.

Capability maturity model

A framework that describes the key elements of an effective software process. It’s an evolutionary improvement path from an immature process to a mature, disciplined process. The CMM covers practices for planning, engineering and managing software development and maintenance. When followed, these key practices improve the ability of organizations to meet goals for cost, schedule, functionality and product quality.

Capable to Promise

A technique used to determine if product can be assembled and shipped by a specific date. Component availability throughout the supply chain, as well as available materials, is checked to determine if delivery of a particular product can be made. The process of committing orders against available capacity as well as inventory. This process may involve multiple manufacturing or distribution sites. Capable-to-promise is used to determine when a new or unscheduled customer order can be delivered. Capable-to-promise employs a finite-scheduling model of the manufacturing system to determine when an item can be delivered. It includes any constraints that might restrict the production, such as availability of resources, lead times for raw materials or purchased parts, and requirements for lower-level components or subassemblies. The resulting delivery date takes into consideration production capacity, the current manufacturing environment, and future order commitments. The objective is to reduce the time spent by production planners in expediting orders and adjusting plans because of inaccurate delivery-date promises.

Capacity

The physical facilities, personnel, and processes available to meet the product or service needs of customers. Capacity generally refers to the maximum output or producing ability of a machine, a person, a process, a factory, a product, or a service. Also see: Capacity Management

Capacity Management

The concept that capacity should be understood, defined, and measured for each level in the organization to include market segments, products, processes, activities, and resources. In each of these applications, capacity is defined in a hierarchy of idle, non-productive, and productive views.

Capacity Planning

Assuring that needed resources (e.g., manufacturing capacity, distribution center capacity, transportation vehicles, etc.) will be available at the right time and place to meet logistics and supply chain needs.

CAPEX

A term used to describe the monetary requirements (CAPital EXpenditure) of an initial investment in new machines or equipment.

Capital

The resources, or money, available for investing in assets that produce output.

CAPP

see Computer Aided Process Planning

CAPSTAN

Computer-Aided Planned Stowage and Networking system.

CAR

Corrective Action Request.

Car supply charge

A railroad charge for a shipper’s exclusive use of special equipment.

CARAT

Cargo Agents Reservation Air Waybill Issuance and Tracking.

Card operating system

The software program stored in the smart card IC, which manages the basic functions of the card, such as communication with the terminal, security management and data management in the smart card file system.

Cargo

Merchandise carried by a means of transportation.

Cargo Bays

Doors in a warehouse where vehicles back up to load/unload cargo.

Cargo Manifest

An invoice of all cargo loaded on board a vessel. Listing of all cargo on board a vessel is required by the relevant local authorities. Also Manifest

Carload Lot

A shipment that qualifies for a reduced freight rate because it is greater than a specified minimum weight. Since carload rates usually include minimum rates per unit of volume, the higher LCL (less than carload) rate may be less expensive for a heavy but relatively small shipment.

Carmack Amendment

An Interstate Commerce Act amendment that delineates the liability of common carriers and the bill of lading provisions.

Carnet

A Customs document permitting the holder to carry or send special categories of goods temporarily into certain foreign countries without paying duties or posting bonds.

Carousel

A rotating system of layers of bins and/or drawers that can store many small items using relatively little floor space.

Carriage

See Transportation.

Carriage and Insurance Paid To

Incoterm. Title and risk pass to buyer when delivered to carrier by seller who pays transportation and insurance cost to destination. Used for any mode of transportation.

Carriage Paid To

Incoterm. Title, risk and insurance cost pass to buyer when delivered to carrier by seller who pays transportation cost to destination. Used for any mode of transportation.

Carrier

A firm that transports goods or people via land, sea, or air.

Carrier Assets

Items that a carrier owns (technically or outright) to facilitate the services they provide.

Carrier Certificate and Release Order

Used to advise customs of the shipment's details. By means of this document, the carrier certifies that the firm or individual named in the certificate is the owner or consignee of the cargo.

Carrier Liability

A common carrier is liable for all shipment loss, damage, and delay with the exception of that caused by act of God, act of a public enemy, act of a public authority, act of the shipper, and the goods' inherent nature.

Carrier’s Certificate

A release order used to advise customs of the details of the shipment, its ownership, port of lading, etc. By means of this document the carrier certifies that the firm or individual named in the certificate is the owner or consignee of the cargo. A U.S. Customs form used in lieu of a bill of lading.

Cartage

There are two definitions for this term: 1) charge for pick-up and delivery of goods 2) movement of goods locally (short distances) .

Cartage Agent

A ground transportation service company who provides pickup and delivery of freight in locations that cannot be served directly by an air or ocean carrier.

Cartel

A group of companies that agree to cooperate rather than compete, in producing a product or service. Thus limiting or regulating competition.

Carton Flow Rack

A storage rack consisting of multiple lines of gravity flow conveyors.

CAS

Condition Assessment Survey

Case Code

The UPC number for a case of product. The UPC case code is different from the UPC item code. This is sometimes referred to as the ‘Shipping Container Symbol’ or ITF-14 code.

Cash Against Documents (CAD)

A method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given to the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller.

Cash Conversion Cycle

1) In retailing, the length of time between the sale of products and the cash payments for a company's resources. 2) In manufacturing, the length of time from the purchase of raw materials to the collection of accounts receivable from customers for the sale of products or services. Also see: Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time.

Cash flow statement

See funds flow statement.

Cash In Advance (CIA)

A method of payment for goods whereby the buyer pays the seller in advance of shipment of goods.

Cash with Order (CWO)

A method of payment for goods where cash is paid at the time of order, and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller.

Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time

The time it takes for cash to flow back into a company after it has been spent for raw materials. Synonym: Cash Conversion Cycle. Calculation: Total Inventory Days of Supply + Days of Sales Outstanding - Average Payment Period for Material in Days.

CASINT

EDIFACT Request for legal administration action in civil proceedings message

CASRES

EDIFACT Legal administration response in civil proceedings message

Catalog Channel

A call center or order processing facility that receives orders directly from the customer based on defined catalog offerings, and ships directly to the customer.

Categorical Plan

A method of selecting and evaluating suppliers that considers input from many departments and functions within the buyer’s organization and systematically categorizes that input. Engineering, production, quality assurance, and other functional areas evaluate all suppliers for critical factors within their scope of responsibility. For example, engineering would develop a category evaluating suppliers’ design flexibility. Rankings are developed across categories, and performance ratings are obtained and supplier selections are made. Also see: Weighted-Point Plan

Category Management

The management of product categories as strategic business units. This practice empowers a category manager with full responsibility for the assortment decisions, inventory levels, shelf-space allocation, promotions, and buying. With this authority and responsibility, the category manager is able to more accurately judge the consumer buying patterns, product sales, and market trends of that category.

Causal Forecast

In forecasting, a type of forecasting that uses cause-and-effect associations to predict and explain relationships between the independent and dependent variables. An example of a causal model is an econometric model used to explain the demand for housing starts based on consumer base, interest rates, personal incomes, and land availability.

Cause and Effect Diagram

In quality management, a structured process used to organize ideas into logical groupings. Used in brainstorming and problem solving exercises. Also known as Ishikawa or fish bone diagram.

Cause-and-Effect Diagram

In quality management, a structured process used to organize ideas into logical groupings. Used in brainstorming and problem-solving exercises. Also known as Ishikawa or fish bone diagram.

CBFT

Cubic Feet

CBM

Cubic Metre

CBM

Cubic Metre. 1 cubic metre = 35,314 cubic feet.

CBT

See Computer-Based Training

CC

Carbon Copy

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Address

CELL

A manufacturing or service unit consisting of a number of workstations, and the materials transport mechanisms and storage buffers that interconnect them.

Cellular manufacturing

A manufacturing approach in which equipment and workstations are arranged to facilitate small-lot, continuous-flow production. In a manufacturing ‘cell,’ all operations necessary to produce a component or subassembly are performed in close proximity, thus allowing for quick feedback between operators when quality problems and other issues arise. Workers in a manufacturing cell typically are cross-trained and, therefore, able to perform multiple tasks as needed.

Center-of-Gravity Approach

A supply chain planning methodology for locating distribution centers at approximately the location representing the minimum transportation costs between the plants, the distribution centers, and the markets.

Central Dispatching

The organization of the dispatching function into one central location. This structure often involves the use of data collection devices for communication between the centralized dispatching function which usually reports to the production control department and the shop manufacturing departments.

Centralized Authority

The restriction of authority to make decisions to few managers.

Centralized Dispatching

The organization of the dispatching function into one central location. This structure often involves the use of data collection devices for communication between the centralized dispatching function, which usually reports to the production control department, and the shop manufacturing departments.

Centralized Inventory Control

Inventory decision-making (for all SKUs) exercised from one office or department for an entire company.

CEPA

Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement

Certificate of Analysis

A certification of conformance to quality standards or specifications for products or materials. It may include a list or reference of analysis results and process information. It is often required for transfer of the custody/ownership/title of materials.

Certificate of Compliance

A supplier's certification that the supplies or services in question meet specified requirements.

Certificate of Insurance

A negotiable document indicating that insurance has been secured under an open policy to cover loss or damage to a shipment while in transit.

Certificate of Origin

A document containing an affidavit to prove the origin of imported goods. Used for customs and foreign exchange purposes.

Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity

The grant of operating authority that common carriers receive. A carrier must prove that a public need exists and that the carrier is fit, willing, and able to provide the needed service. The certificate may specify the commodities the carrier may haul, and the routes it may use.

Certificated Carrier

A for-hire air carrier that is subject to economic regulation and requires an operating certification to provide service.

Certified Supplier

A status awarded to a supplier who consistently meets predetermined quality, cost, delivery, financial, and count objectives. Incoming inspection may not be required.

CFD

see Continuous Flow Distribution

CFM

Cubic Feet per Minute

CFR

see Cost and Freight

CFS

See Container Freight Station.

CFS

Container Freight Station

CFS/CFS

See Container Freight Station to Container Freight Station.

CGI

Common Gateway Interface CGI

CGMP

see Current good manufacturing practices

CHACCO

EDIFACT Chart of accounts message

Chain of Customers

The sequence of customers who, in turn, consume the output of each other, forming a chain. For example, individuals are customers of a department store which in turn is the customer of a producer who is the customer of a material supplier.

Chain reaction

A chain of events described by W. Edwards Deming: improve quality, decrease costs, improve productivity, increase market with better quality and lower price, stay in business, provide jobs and provide more jobs.

Challenge and Response

A method of user authentication. The user enters an ID and password and, in return, is issued a challenge by the system. The system compares the user’s response to the challenge to a computed response. If the responses match, the user is allowed access to the system. The system issues a different challenge each time. In effect, it requires a new password for each logon.

Champion

A business leader or senior manager who ensures that resources are available for training and projects, and who is involved in project tollgate reviews, also an executive who supports and addresses Six Sigma organizational issues.

Change agent

An individual from within or outside an organization who facilitates change within the organization. May or may not be the initiator of the change effort.

Change Management

The business process that coordinates and monitors all changes to the business processes and applications operated by the business, as well as to their internal equipment, resources, operating systems, and procedures. The change management discipline is carried out in a way that minimizes the risk of problems that will affect the operating environment and service delivery to the users.

Change Order

A formal notification that a purchase order or shop order must be modified in some way. This change can result from a revised quantity, date, or specification by the customer; an engineering change; a change in inventory requirement data; etc.

Changeover

Process of making necessary adjustments to change or switchover the type of products produced on a manufacturing line. Changeovers usually lead to downtime and for the most part, companies try to minimize changeover time to help reduce costs.

Channel

(1) A method whereby a business dispenses its product, such as a retail or distribution channel, call center or web based electronic storefront.(2) A push technology that allows users to subscribe to a website to browse offline, automatically display updated pages on their screen savers, and download or receive notifications when pages in the website are modified. Channels are available only in browsers that support channel definitions, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer version 4.0 and above.

Channel Charging area

A warehouse area where a company maintains battery chargers and extra batteries to support a fleet of electrically powered materials handling equipment. The company must maintain this area in accordance with government safety regulations.

Channel Conflict

This occurs when various sales channels within a company's supply chain compete with each other for the same business. An example is where a retail channel is in competition with a web-based channel set up by the company.

Channel Partners

Members of a supply chain (i.e., suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, etc.) who work in conjunction with one another to manufacture, distribute, and sell a specific product.

Channel1.

A method whereby a business dispenses its product, such as a retail or distribution channel, call center, or a web-based electronic storefront. 2. A push technology that allows users to subscribe to a web site to browse offline, automatically display updated pages on their screen savers, and download or receive notifications when pages in the web site are modified. Channels are available only in browsers that support channel definitions such as Microsoft Internet Explorer version 4.0.

Channels of Distribution

Any series of firms or individuals that participates in the flow of goods and services from the raw material supplier and producer to the final user or consumer. Also see: Distribution Channel.

Chargeable Weight

The shipment weight used in determining freight charges. The chargeable weight may be the dimensional weight or, for container shipments, the gross weight of the shipment less the tare weight of the container.

Charging Area

A warehouse area where a company maintains battery chargers and extra batteries to support a fleet of electrically powered materials handling equipment. The company must maintain this area in accordance with government safety regulations.

Chassis

A specialized framework that carries a rail or marine container

Checksum

A code added to the contents of a block of data stored on an RFID microchip that can be checked before and after data is transmitted from the tag to the reader to determine whether the data has been corrupted or lost. The cyclic redundancy check is one form of checksum.

Chipless RFID tag

An RFID tag that doesn’t depend on a silicon microchip. Some chipless tags use plastic or conductive polymers instead of silicon-based microchips. Other chipless tags use materials that reflect back a portion of the radio waves beamed at them. A computer takes a snapshot of the waves beamed back and uses it like a fingerprint to identify the object with the tag. Companies are experimenting with embedding RF reflecting fibers in paper to prevent unauthorized photocopying of certain documents. Chipless tags that use embedded fibers have one drawback for supply chain uses?only one tag can be read at a time.

Chock

A wedge, usually made of hard rubber or steel, that is firmly placed under the wheel of a trailer, truck, or boxcar to stop it from rolling.

CHOPT

Charterers Option

CHTRS

Charterers

CI

See Continuous Improvement.

CI

See Continuous Improvement.

CIA

See Cash In Advance

CIF

See Cost, Insurance, and Freight

CIF

See Cost, Insurance, Freight

CIF

Cost, Insurance and Freight

CILT

The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport

CIM

The Chartered Institute of Marketing

CIM

see Computer Integrated Manufacturing

CIP

Carriage and Insurance Paid To

CIP

see Carriage and Insurance Paid To

City Driver

A motor carrier driver who drives a local route as opposed to a long-distance, intercity route.

Civil Aeronautics Board

A federal regulatory agency that implemented economic regulatory controls over air carriers.

CKD

Completely knocked down

CL

Carload rail service requiring shipper to meet minimum weight.

Claim

A charge made against a carrier for loss, damage, delay, or overcharge.

Claim Tracer

Request for advice concerning the status of a claim.

Claims

Shipper’s statement of shipment loss or damage and a demand for compensation.

CLASET

EDIFACT Classification information set message

Class 1 Railroad

A line haul freight railroad of US ownership with operating revenue in excess of $272.0 million. There are seven (7) Class 1 Railroads in the United States. Two Mexican and two Canadian railroads would also qualify, if they were US companies.

Class I Carrier

A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues -- motor carriers of property; $5 million; railroads; $50 million; motor carriers of passengers; $3 million.

Class II Carrier

A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues -- motor carriers of property: $1-$5 million; railroads: $10-$50 million; motor carriers of passengers: $3 million.

Class III Carrier

A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues -- motor carriers of property: $1 million; railroads $10 million.

Class rate

A rate constructed from a classification and a uniform distance system. A class rate is available for any product between any two points.

Class Rates

A grouping of goods or commodities under one general heading. All the items in the group make up a class. The freight rates that apply to all items in the class are called 'class rates.'

Classification

An alphabetical listing of commodities, the class or rating into which the commodity is placed, and the minimum weight necessary for the rate discount; used in the class rate structure.

Classification yard

A railroad terminal area where railcars are grouped together to form train units.

CLCA

see Closed-loop corrective action

Clean On Board

A clause inserted in the bill of lading by some shipping/transportation companies, stating that they have not noted or are not familiar with any irregularities or discrepancies in the packing or in the general condition of any part of the goods or its description.

Clearance

A document stating that a shipment is free to be imported into the country after all legal requirements have been met.

Clearinghouse

A conventional or limited-purpose entity generally restricted to providing specialized services, such as clearing funds or settling accounts.

Cleat

A strip of wood or metal that is used for additional strength and support, to prevent warping and allowing for support.

Click-and-Mortar

With reference to a traditional brick-and-mortar company that has expanded its presence online. Many brickand- mortar stores are now trying to establish an online presence but often have a difficult time doing so for many reasons. Clickand- mortar is ‘the successful combination of online and real world experience.’

Client Agency

A using agency benefiting by a purchase made or a contract established by a procurement administration.

Clip Art

A collection of icons, buttons, and other useful image files, along with sound and video files that can be inserted into documents/web pages.

Clipboard

A temporary storage area on a computer for cut or copied items.

CLM

Council of Logistics Management, now known as TheCouncil of Supply Chain Management Professionals.

Closed Loop MRP

A system build around material requirements planning that includes the additional planning processes of production planning (sales and operations planning) , master production scheduling, and capacity requirements planning. Once this planning phase is complete and the plans have been accepted as realistic and attainable, the execution processes come into play. These processes include the manufacturing control process of input-output (capacity) measurement, detailed scheduling and dispatching, as well as anticipated delay reports from both the plant and suppliers, supplier scheduling, and so on. The term 'closed loop implies not only that each of these processes is included in the overall system, but also that feedback is provided by the execution processes so that the planning can be kept valid at all times..

Closed-loop corrective action

A sophisticated engineering system designed to document, verify and diagnose failures, recommend and initiate corrective action, provide follow-up and maintain comprehensive statistical records.

Closed-loop MRP

A system built around material requirements planning that includes the additional planning processes of production planning (sales and operations planning), master production scheduling, and capacity requirements planning. Once this planning phase is complete and the plans have been accepted as realistic and attainable, the execution processes come into play. These processes include the manufacturing control processes of input-output (capacity) measurement, detailed scheduling and dispatching, as well as anticipated delay reports from both the plant and suppliers, supplier scheduling, and so on. The term closed loop implies not only that each of these processes is included in the overall system, but also that feedback is provided by the execution processes so that the planning can be kept valid at all times.

CLP

Container Load Plan

CMI

See Co-Managed Inventory

CMM

see Capability maturity model

CMMS

see Computerized Maintenance Management Systems

CNTCND

EDIFACT Contractual conditions message

CO

Carbon monoxide

Co-Destiny

The evolution of a supply chain from intra-organizational management to inter-organizational management.

Co-Managed Inventory

A form of continuous replenishment in which the manufacturer is responsible for replenishment of standard merchandise, while the retailer manages the replenishment of promotional merchandise.

Co-Managed Inventory (CMI)

A form of continuous replenishment in which the manufacturer is responsible for replenishment of standard merchandise, while the retailer manages the replenishment of promotional merchandise.

Co-opetition

A combination of cooperation and competition that offers the counter intuitive possibility for rivals to benefit from each other’s seemingly competitive activities. In short, there are circumstances where having more players to cut the pie means bigger pieces of pie for everyone. An example would be found in the group buying setting where its use refers to the activity of multiple, normally competitive buying group members leveraging each other’s buying power to gain reduced pricing.

Co-Packer

A contract co-packer produces goods and/or services for other companies, usually under the other company's label or name. Co-packers are more frequently seen in consumer packaged goods and foods.

Co-product

The term co-product is used to describe multiple items that are produced simultaneously during a production run. Co-products are often used to increase yields in cutting operations such as die cutting or sawing when it is found that scrap can be reduced by combining multiple-sized products in a single production run. Co-products are also used to reduce the frequency of machine setups required in these same types of operations. Co-products, also known as byproducts, are also common in process manufacturing such as in chemical plants. Although the concept of co-products is fairly simple, the programming logic required to provide for planning and processing of co-products is very complicated.

CO2

Carbon dioxide

COA

see Certificate of Analysis

COACP

Contract of Affreightment Charter Party

COACSU

EDIFACT Commercial account summary message

COARRI

EDIFACT Container discharge/loading report message

Coastal Carriers

Water carriers that provide service along coasts serving ports on the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans or on the Gulf of Mexico.

COB

Closing of Business

COD

Cash on Delivery

Codabar

Codabar is a variable length barcode that can encode 16 data characters including 0-9, plus the symbols - $ , / . +. Codabar is used primarily for numeric data.

Code

A numeric, or alphanumeric representation of text for exchanging commonly-used information. For example: commodity codes, carrier codes.

Code 128 Auto

Code 128 is a variable length barcode capable of encoding the entire 128 character ASCII character set. Code 128 allows three subsets, A, B and C. This version, ‘Code 128 Auto’, automatically selects the subset that will produce the smallest barcode.

Code 128A

Code 128 is a variable length barcode capable of encoding the entire 128 character ASCII character set. Code 128 allows three subsets, A, B and C. This subset (A) allows all standard upper case alpha-numeric keyboard characters plus control characters.

Code 128B

Code 128 is a variable length barcode capable of encoding the entire 128 character ASCII character set. Code 128 allows three subsets, A, B and C. This subset (B) allows all standard upper case alpha-numeric keyboard characters and lower case alpha characters.

Code 128C

Code 128 is a variable length barcode capable of encoding the entire 128 character ASCII character set. Code 128 allows three subsets, A, B and C. This subset (C) includes a set of 100 digit pairs from 00 to 99 inclusive. This allows double density numeric digits, two digits per barcoded character.

Code 3 of 9

This barcode is an alphanumeric barcode allowing upper case letters and numbers. Each character consists of nine elements. 3 of the nine elements are wide, hence the name ‘3 of 9′.

Code 93

Code 93 is an alpha-numeric barcode allowing upper case letters and numbers. BarCode/VBX will convert lower case letters to upper case before encoding them.

Code of Ethics

A written publication of behavioral aspects required of appointed, elected or individuals under the employment of a jurisdiction.

CODECO

EDIFACT Container gate-in/gate-out report message

CODENO

EDIFACT Permit expiration/clearance ready notice message

Codifying

The process of detailing a new standard.

COEDOR

EDIFACT Container stock report message

COFC

See Container on Flat Car

COFC

Container-on-flatcar

COGS

See Cost-of-Goods Sold.

COGSA

Carriage of Goods by Sea Act

COHAOR

EDIFACT Container special handling order message

Collaboration

Joint work and communication among people and systems including business partners, suppliers, and customers to achieve a common business goal.

Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenish

(1) A collaboration process whereby supply chain trading partners can jointly plan key supply chain activities from production and delivery of raw materials to production and delivery of final products to end customers. Collaboration encompasses business planning, sales forecasting, and all operations required to replenish raw materials and finished goods. (2) CPFR: A process philosophy for facilitating collaborative communications. CPFR is considered a standard, endorsed by the Voluntary Interindustry Commerce Standards.

Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR)

  1. A collaboration process whereby supply chain trading partners can jointly plan key supply chain activities from production and delivery of raw materials, to production and delivery of final products to end customers. Collaboration encompasses business planning, sales forecasting, and all operations required to replenish raw materials and finished goods.
  2. A process philosophy for facilitating collaborative communications. CPFR is considered a standard, endorsed by the Voluntary Inter-Industry Commerce Standards.

Collaborative Product Commerce

A set of activities and functions that enable collaboration between business partners in the supply chain.

Collect Freight

Freight payable to the carrier at the port of discharge or ultimate destination. The consignee does not pay the freight charge if the cargo does not arrive at the destination.

Collective Paper

All documents (commercial invoices, bills of lading, etc.) submitted to a buyer for the purpose of receiving payment for a shipment.

Collusion

An alliance between bidders or persons designed to interfere with just accomplishment of a purpose or a fair opportunity to bid.

COLREQ

EDIFACT Request for a documentary collection message

Column

Two or more units tiered on top of one another.

Combi Aircraft

An aircraft specially designed to carry unitized cargo loads on the upper deck of the craft, forward of the passenger area.

Combined Lead Time

See Cumulative Lead Time

Combined Transport Bill of Lading

Provides a combined transport by at least two different modes of transportation from a place from which the goods are taken to a place designated for delivery.

COMDIS

EDIFACT Commercial dispute message

Commercial Invoice

A document created by the seller. It is an official document which is used to indicate, among other things, the name and address of the buyer and seller, the product(s) being shipped, and their value for customs, insurance, or other purposes.

Commercial Law

Law regulating Commerce and trade activities. Such Laws provide direction for purchasing personnel as well as suppliers. Reference ‘Uniform Commercial Code’.

Commercial zone

The area surrounding a city or town to which rate carriers quote for the city or town also apply; the ICC defines the area.

Committed Capability

The portion of the production capability that is currently in use, or is scheduled for use.

Committee of American Steamship Lines

An industry association representing subsidized U.S. flag steamship firms.

Commodities

Any article exchanged in trade, most commonly used to refer to raw materials and agricultural products.

Commodities Clause

A clause that prohibits railroads from hauling commodities that they produced, mined, owned, or had an interest in.

Commodity

Any tangible item of property purchased, leased or otherwise obtained by the State and its agencies. Includes deferred payment interest on purchase of tangible personal property and letting of publications upon contract. Commodity does not include goods/property purchased for resale.

Commodity Buying

Grouping like parts or materials under one buyer's control for the procurement of all requirements to support production.

Commodity Code

A code describing a commodity or a group of commodities pertaining to goods classification. This code can be carrier tariff or regulating in nature.

Commodity Procurement Strategy

The purchasing plan for a family of items. This would include the plan to manage the supplier base and solve problems.

Commodity Rate

A rate for a specific commodity and its origin-destination.

Common Carrier

Transportation available to the public that does not provide special treatment to any one party and is regulated as to the rates charged, the liability assumed, and the service provided. A common carrier must obtain a certificate of public convenience and necessity from the Federal Trade Commission for interstate traffic. Antonym: Private Carrier.

Common Carrier Duties

Common carriers must serve, deliver, charge reasonable rates, and not discriminate.

Common Cost

A cost that a company cannot directly assign to particular segments of the business; a cost that the company incurs for the business as a whole.

Common Point

Point reached by two or more transportation lines.

Common Tariff

Tariff published by or for the account of two or more transportation lines as issuing carriers.

Communication Protocol

The method by which two computers coordinate their communications. BISYNC and MNP are two examples.

Commuter

An exempt for-hire air carrier that publishes a time schedule on specific routes; a special type of air taxi.

Company Culture

A system of values, beliefs, and behaviors inherent in a company. To optimize business performance, top management must define and create the necessary culture.

Company Guarantee

A letter of guarantee from a company indemnifying the carrier of responsibility associated with the release of goods in lieu of a bill of lading.

Comparative Advantage

A principle based on the assumption that an area will specialize in producing goods for which it has the greatest advantage or the least comparative disadvantage.

Competitive Advantage

Value created by a company for its customers that clearly distinguishes it from the competition, provides its customers a reason to remain loyal.

Competitive Benchmarking

Benchmarking a product or service against competitors. Also see: Benchmarking.

Competitive Bid

A price/service offering by a supplier that must compete with offerings from other suppliers.

Competitive Quotations

A purchasing method used to obtain competitive pricing for goods when the anticipated cost is less than the amount required for formal or competitive sealed bids. This method is used only for small purchasers and should be documented or recorded by written statements from the suppliers.

Competitive Sealed Bidding

A method of acquiring goods above a certain dollar amount when various sources are available. This procurement process allows for levels of quality, terms and conditions to be defined while obtaining competitive pricing.

Competitive Sealed Proposals

A method of establishing a contract for source selection by issuing a request for competitive offers whereby negotiation and changes in the offers may be allowed to secure the most advantageous and cost effective terms for the purchaser.

Complete & On-Time Delivery

A measure of customer service. All items on any given order must be delivered on time for the order to be considered as complete and on time

Complete and On-Time Delivery (COTD)

A measure of customer service. All items on any given order must be delivered on time for the order to be considered as complete and on time.

Complete Manufacture to Ship Time

Average time from when a unit is declared shippable by manufacturing until the unit actually ships to a customer.

Compliance

Meaning that products, services, processes, and/or documents comply with requirements.

Compliance Checking

The function of EDI processing software that ensures that all transmissions contain the mandatory information demanded by the EDI standard. Compares information sent by an EDI user against EDI standards and reports exceptions. Does not ensure that documents are complete and fully accurate, but does reject transmissions with missing data elements or syntax errors.

Compliance Monitoring

A check done by the VAN/third party network or the translation software to ensure the data being exchanged is in the correct format for the standard being used.

Compliance Program

A method by which two or more EDI trading partners periodically report conformity to agreed upon standards of control and audit. Management produces statements of compliance, which briefly note any exceptions, as well as corrective action planned or taken, in accordance with operating rules. Auditors produce an independent and objective statement of opinion on management statements.

Component

Material that will contribute to a finished product but is not the finished product itself. Examples include tires for an automobile, power supply for a personal computer, or a zipper for a ski parka.

Computer Aided Design

Computer-based systems for product design that may incorporate analytical and ‘what if’ capabilities to optimize product designs. Many CAD systems capture geometric and other product characteristics for engineeringdata- management systems, producibility and cost analysis, and performance analysis. In many cases, CAD-generated data

Computer Aided Engineering

The use of computers to model design options to stimulate their performance.

Computer Aided Manufacturing

Computerized systems in which manufacturing instructions are downloaded to automated equipment or to operator workstations.

Computer Aided Process Planning

Software-based systems that aid manufacturing engineers in creating a process plan to manufacture a product who’s geometric, electronic, and other characteristics have been captured in a CAD database. CAPP systems address such manufacturing criteria as target costs, target lead times, anticipated production volumes, availability of

Computer Based Training

Training that is delivered via computer workstation and includes all training and testing materials.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

A variety of approaches in which computer systems communicate or interoperate over a local-area network. Typically, CIM systems link management functions with engineering, manufacturing, and support operations. In the factory, CIM systems may control the sequencing of production operations, control operation of automated equipment and conveyor systems, transmit manufacturing instructions, capture data at various stages of the manufacturing or assembly process, facilitate tracking and analysis of test results and operating parameters, or a combination of these.

Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)

The use of computers to model design options to stimulate their performance.

Computer-Based Training

Training that is delivered via computer workstation and includes all training and testing materials.

Computerized Maintenance Management Systems

Software-based systems that analyze operating conditions of production equipment : vibration, oil analysis, heat, etc. : and equipment-failure data, and apply that data to the scheduling of maintenance and repair inventory orders and routine maintenance functions. A CMMS prevents unscheduled machine downtime and optimizes a plant’s ability to process product at optimum volumes and quality levels.

Computerized process simulation

Use of computer simulation to facilitate sequencing of production operations, analysis of production flows, and layout of manufacturing facilities.

Computerized SPC

See Statistical process control

CONAPW

EDIFACT Advice on pending works message

Concealed Damage

Damage to the contents of a package that is in good condition externally.

Concurrent engineering

A cross-functional, team-based approach in which the product and the manufacturing process are designed and configured within the same time frame, rather than sequentially. Ease and cost of manufacturability, as well as customer needs, quality issues, and product-life-cycle costs are taken into account earlier in the development cycle. Fully configured concurrent engineering teams include representation from marketing, design engineering, manufacturing engineering, and purchasing, as well as supplierand even customercompanies.

Concurrent working

Moving from sequential to parallel woring

CONDPV

EDIFACT Direct payment valuation message

CONDRA

EDIFACT Drawing administration message

CONDRO

EDIFACT Drawing organization message

CONEST

EDIFACT Establishment of contract message

Conference

A group of vessel operators joined for the purpose of establishing freight rates.

Conference Carrier

An ocean carrier who is a member of an association known as a 'conference.' The purpose of the conference is to standardize shipping practices, eliminate freight rate competition, and provide regularly scheduled service between specific ports.

Confidential Information (also, Proprietary Inform

Any information conveyed to a public employee, due to position in the procurement process, by a manufacturer of firm such as, product testing or trade secret which would not be available as general knowledge.

Configuration

The arrangement of components as specified to produce an assembly.

Configure/Package to Order

A process where the trigger to begin to manufacture, final assembly, or packaging of a product is an actual customer order or release rather than a market forecast. In order to be considered a configure-to-order environment, less than 20% of the value added takes place after the receipt of the order or release, and virtually all necessary design and process documentation is available at time of order receipt.

Configure/Package-to-Order

A process where the trigger to begin manufacture, final assembly or packaging of a product is an actual customer order or release, rather than a market forecast. In order to be considered a Configure-to-Order environment, less than 20% of the value-added takes place after the receipt of the order or release, and virtually all necessary design and process documentation is available at time of order receipt.

Confirmation

With regards to EDI, a formal notice (by message or code) from a electronic mailbox system or EDI server indicating that a message sent to a trading partner has reached its intended mailbox or has been retrieved by the addressee.

Confirming Order

A purchase order issued to a supplier listing the goods or services and terms of an order placed orally or otherwise before the usual purchase document.

Conflict of Interest

Interests or involvements that a public employee or a commerce representative may have which would weaken a decision process and not be fair and impartial to business negotiations.

Conformance

An affirmative indication or judgment that a product or service has met the requirements of a relevant specification, contract, or regulation. Synonym: Compliance.

CONITT

EDIFACT Invitation to tender message

CONPVA

EDIFACT Payment valuation message

CONQVA

EDIFACT Quantity valuation message

Conrail

The Consolidated Rail Corporation established by the Regional Reorganization Act of 1973 to operate the bankrupt Penn Central Railroad and other bankrupt railroads in the Northeast; the 4-R Act of 1976 provided funding.

CONRPW

EDIFACT Response of pending works message