Glossary

A/F

All Fast

A/R

See Accounts Receivable.

A/S

Alongside

A1

ABS Class notation of vessel.

AAAA

Always Afloat, Always Accessible

AAAA

Always Accessible Always Afloat

AAOSA

Always Afloat or Safe Aground. Condition for a vessel whilst in port

AAP

Affirmative Action Plan.

AAPA

American Association of Port Authorities.

AARA

Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area

AARA

Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area

AAS

Annual Automation control Survey.

AASO

Association of American Shipowners

AB SUM A

Summary Report of Class Surveys.

AB SUM B

Summary Report of Statutory Surveys.

AB SUM C1

Outstanding Recommendations.

AB SUM C2

Outstanding Deficiencies Statutory Surveys.

Abandonment

The decision of a carrier to give up or to discontinue service over a route. Railroads must seek ICC permission to abandon routes.

ABB

see Activity Based Budgeting

ABC

see Activity Based Costing

ABC

Activity-Based Costing.

ABC Analysis

A classification of items in an inventory according to importance defined in terms of criteria such as sales volume and purchase volume.

ABC Classification

Classification of a group of items in decreasing order of annual dollar volume or other criteria. This array is then split into three classes called A, B, and C. The A group represents 10 to 20% by number of items, and 50 to 70% by projected dollar volume. The next grouping, B, represents about 20% of the items and 20% of the dollare volume. The C-class contains 60 to 70% of the items, and represents about 10 to 30% of the dollar volume.

ABC Costing

See Activity-Based Costing

ABC Inventory Control

An inventory control approach based on the ABC volume or sales revenue classification of products (A items are highest volume or revenue, C - or perhaps D - are lowest volume SKUs.)

ABC Model

In cost management, a representation of resource costs during a time period that are consumed through activities and traced to products, services, and customers or to any other object that creates a demand for the activity to be performed.

ABC System

In cost management, a system that maintains financial and operating data on an organization's resources, activities, drivers, objects and measures. ABC Models are created and maintained within this system.

ABCU

Automated Bridge Control system for Unattended engine room.

ABI

See Automated Broker Interface

ABM

See Activity-Based Management.

ABN

Abandoned.

Abnormal Demand

Demand in any period that is outside the limits established by management policy. This demand may come from a new customer or from existing customers whose own demand is increasing or decreasing. Care must be taken in evaluating the nature of the demand: Is it a volume change, is it a change in product mix, or is it related to the timing of the order?

ABP

See Activity-Based Planning.

ABS

American Bureau of Shipping. US Classification Society founded in 1862.

Absorption

The assumption that the carrier will cover extraordinary or other special charges without increasing the price to the shipper.

Absorption Costing

In cost management, an approach to inventory valuation in which variable costs and a portion of fixed costs are assigned to each unit of production. The fixed costs are usually allocated to units of output on the basis of direct labor hours, machine hours, or material costs. Synonym: Allocation Costing.

ABT

About

ABT

About

ACC

Automatic Control system Certified.

Accelerated Commercial Release Operations Support System (ACROSS)

A Canada Customs system to speed the release of shipments by allowing electronic transmission of data to and from Canada Customs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Acceptable Quality Level

In quality management, when a continuing series of lots is considered, AQL represents a quality level that, for the purposes of sampling inspection, is the limit of a satisfactory process average. Also see: Acceptance Sampling.

Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)

In quality management, when a continuing series of lots is considered, AQL represents a quality level that, for the purposes of sampling inspection, is the limit of a satisfactory process average.

Acceptable Sampling Plan

In quality management, a specific plan that indicates the sampling sizes and the associated acceptance or non-acceptance criteria to be used. Also see: Acceptance Sampling.

Acceptance Number

In quality management, 1) A number used in acceptance sampling as a cut off at which the lot will be accepted or rejected. For example, if x or more units are bad within the sample, the lot will be rejected. 2) The value of the test statistic that divides all possible values into acceptance and rejection regions. Also see: Acceptance Sampling.

Acceptance Sampling

1) The process of sampling a portion of goods for inspection rather than examining the entire lot. The entire lot may be accepted or rejected based on the sample even though the specific units in the lot are better or worse than the sample. There are two types: attributes sampling and variables sampling. In attributes sampling, the presence or absence of a characteristic is noted in each of the units inspected. In variables sampling, the numerical magnitude of a characteristic is measured and recorded for each inspected unit; this type of sampling involves reference to a continuous scale of some kind. 2)

Access Space

An aisle used to gain access to facings, slots or stacks. Accountable Stock-Materials designated for inventory and some control of issue and/or access. Level of accountability is determined by the responsible agent.

Accessibility

A carrier's ability to provide service between an origin and a destination.

Accessorial

(1) Accessorial Charges - Charges made for additional, special or supplemental services, normally over and above the line haul services. (2) Accessorial Service - Service rendered by a carrier in addition to transportation services. (e.g. sorting, packing, precooling, heating and storage.)

Accessorial Charges

A carrier's charge for accessorial services such as loading, unloading, pickup, and delivery, or any other charge deemed appropriate.

Accessory

A choice or feature added to the good or service offered to the customer for customizing the end product. An accessory enhances the capabilities of the product but is not necessary for the basic function of the product. In many companies, an accessory means that the choice does not have to be specified before shipment but can be added at a later date. In other companies, this choice must be made before shipment.

Accountability

Being answerable for, but not necessarily personally charged with, doing specific work. Accountability cannot be delegated, but it can be shared. For example, managers and executives are accountable for business performance even though they may not actually perform the work.

Accounts Payable

The value of goods and services acquired for which payment has not yet been made.

Accounts Payable (A/P)

The value of goods and services acquired for which payment has not yet been made.

Accounts Receivable (A/R)

The value of goods shipped or services rendered to a customer on whom payment has not been received. Usually includes an allowance for bad debts.

Accreditation

Certification by a recognized body of the facilities, capability, objectivity, competence, and integrity of an agency, service, operational group, or individual to provide the specific service or operation needed. For example, the Registrar Accreditation Board accredits those organizations that register companies to the ISO 9000 Series Standards.

Accredited Standards Committee (ASC)

A committee of ANSI chartered in 1979 to develop uniform standards for the electronic interchange of business documents. The committee develops and maintains US generic standards (X12) for Electronic Data Interchange.

ACCU

Automatic Control system Certified for Unattended engine room.

Accumulation Bin

A place, usually a physical location, used to accumulate all components that go into an assembly before the assembly is sent out to the assembly floor. Synonym: Assembly Bin.

Accuracy

In quality management, the degree of freedom from error or the degree of conformity to a standard. Accuracy is different from precision. For example, four-significant-digit numbers are less precise than six-significant-digit numbers; however, a properly computed four-significant-digit number might be more accurate than an improperly computed six-significant-digit number.

ACD

See Automated Call Distribution.

ACE

see Automated Commercial Environment

ACFN

American Committee for Flags of Necessity

ACG

Annual Cargo Gear survey.

ACH

see Automated Clearinghouse

ACI

Advance Commercial Information System use in Canada

Acknowledgement

A communication by a supplier to advise a purchaser that a purchase order has been received. It usually implies acceptance of the order by the supplier.

ACP

Alternative Compliance Program.

Acquisition Cost

In cost accounting, the cost required to obtain one or more units of an item. It is order quantity times unit cost.

ACS

1.American Chemical Society.2.Arab Classification Society.

ACSI

see American Customer Satisfaction Index

Act of God

An extraordinary force of nature (such as a severe flood or earthquake) that experience, prescience or care cannot reasonably foresee or prevent.

Action Message

An alert that an MRP or DRP system generates to inform the controller of a situation requiring his or her attention.

Action plan

A specific method or process to achieve the results called for by one or more objectives. An action plan may be a simpler version of a project plan.

Action Report

See Action Message

Activation

In constraint management, the use of non-constraint resources to make parts or products above the level needed to support the system constraint(s). The result is excessive work-in-process inventories or finished goods inventories, or both. In contrast, the term utilization is used to describe the situation in which non-constraint resource(s) usage is synchronized to support the needs of the constraint.

Active Block

A uniform block after one or more elements have been removed, i.e.,a block that is being worked.

Active Inventory

The raw materials, work in process, and finished goods that will be used or sold within a given period.

Active Stock

Goods in active pick locations and ready for order filling.

Active tag

An RFID tag that has a transmitter to send back information, rather than reflecting back a signal from the reader, as a passive tag does. Most active tags use a battery to transmit a signal to a reader. However, some tags can gather energy from other sources. Active tags can be read from 300 feet (100 meters) or more, but they’re expensive (typically more than US$20 each). They’re used for tracking expensive items over long ranges. For instance, the U.S. military uses active tags to track containers of supplies arriving in ports.

Activity

Work performed by people, equipment, technologies, or facilities. Activities are usually described by the action-verb-adjective-noun grammar convention. Activities may occur in a linked sequence and activity-to-activity assignments may exist.
  1. In activity-based cost accounting, a task or activity, performed by or at a resource, required in producing the organization's output of goods and services. A resource may be a person, machine, or facility. Activities are grouped into pools by type of activity and allocated to products.
  2. In project management, an element of work on a project. It usually has an anticipated duration, anticipated cost, and expected resource requirements. Sometimes major activity is used for larger bodies of work.

Activity Analysis

The process of identifying and cataloging activities for detailed understanding and documentation of their characteristics. An activity analysis is accomplished by means of interviews, group sessions, questionnaires, observations, and reviews of physical records of work.

Activity Based Budgeting

An approach to budgeting where a company uses an understanding of its activities and driver relationships to quantitatively estimate workload and resource requirements as part of an ongoing business plan. Budgets show the types, number of and cost of resources that activities are expected to consume based on forecasted workloads. The budget is part of an organization’s activity-based planning process and can be used in evaluating its success in setting and pursuing strategic goals.

Activity Based Costing

A methodology that measures the cost and performance of cost objects, activities and resources. Cost objects consume activities and activities consume resources. Resource costs are assigned to activities based on their use of those resources, and activity costs are reassigned to cost objects (outputs) based on the cost objects proportional use of those activities. Activity-based costing incorporates causal relationships between cost objects and activities and between activities and resources. ABC links activities to a particular product so that the cost impact of that product is more readily visible. ABC combines financial data with nonfinancial data (activity costs) to report the actual per-unit cost of outputs. ABC is a refined form of absorption accounting that replaces misleading overhead cost allocations with cause-and-effect driver relationships that do a better job of segmenting and tracing the diversity and variation of the outputs of the processes. For example, an ABC approach might measure the cost incurred by the accounts receivable department in handling calls for billing errors, whereas the traditional accounting approach ignores the activity and measures the cost of the accounts receivable department as a percentage of revenue.

Activity Based Costing Model

In activity-based cost accounting, a model, by time period, of resource costs created because of activities related to products or services or other items causing the activity to be carried out.

Activity Based Costing System

A set of activity-based cost accounting models that collectively define data on an organization’s resources, activities, drivers, objects, and measurements.

Activity Based Management

A discipline focusing on the management of activities within business processes as the route to continuously improve both the value received by customers and the profit earned in providing that value. ABM uses activity-based cost information and performance measurements to influence management action. See Activity-Based Costing

Activity Based Planning

Activity-based planning (ABP) is an ongoing process to determine activity and resource requirements (both financial and operational) based on the ongoing demand of products or services by specific customer needs. Resource requirements are compared to resources available and capacity issues are identified and managed. Activity-based budgeting (ABB) is based on the outputs of activity-based planning.

Activity Dictionary

A listing and description of activities that provides a common/standard definition of activities across the organization. An activity dictionary can include information about an activity and/or its relationships, such as activity description, business process, function source, whether value added, inputs, outputs, supplier, customer, output measures, cost drivers, attributes, tasks, and other information as desired to describe the activity.

Activity Driver

The best single quantitative measure of the frequency and intensity of the demands placed on an activity by cost objects or other activities. It's used to assign activity costs to cost objects or to other activities.

Activity Level

A description of types of activities dependent on the functional area. Product-related activity levels may include unit, batch, and product levels. Customer-related activity levels may include customer, market, channel, and project levels.

Activity network diagram

An arrow diagram used in planning and managing processes and projects.

Activity Ratio

A financial ratio used to determine how an organization's resources perform relative to the revenue the resources produce. Activity ratios include inventory turnover, receivables conversion period, fixed-asset turnover, and return on assets.

Activity-based budgeting (ABB)

is based on the outputs of activity-based planning.

Activity-Based Budgeting (ABB)

An approach to budgeting where a company uses an understanding of its activities and driver relationships to quantitatively estimate workload and resource requirements as part of an ongoing business plan. Budgets show the types, number of, and cost of resources that activities are expected to consume based on forecasted workloads. The budget is part of an organization's activity-based planning process and can be used in evaluating its success in setting and pursuing strategic goals.

Activity-Based Costing (ABC)

A methodology that measures the cost and performance of cost objects, activities, and resources. Cost objects consume activities and activities consume resources. Resource costs are assigned to activities based on their use of those resources, and activity costs are reassigned to cost objects (outpputs) based on the cost objects proportional use of those activities. Activity-based costing incorporates causal relationships between cost objects and activities and between activities and resources.

Activity-Based Costing Model

In activity-based cost accounting, a model, by time period, of resource costs created because of activities related to products or services or other items causing the activity to be carried out.

Activity-Based Costing System

A set of activity-based cost accounting models that collectively defines data on an organization's resources, activities, drivers, objects, and measures.

Activity-Based Management (ABM)

A discipline focusing on the management of activities within business processes as the route to continuously improve both the value received by customers and the profit earned in providing that value. AMB uses activity-based cost information and performance measurements to influence management action. See Activity-Based Costing.

Activity-Based Planning (ABP)

Activity-based planning (ABP) is an ongoing process to determine activity and resource requirements (both financial and operational) based on the ongoing demand of products or services by specific customer needs. Resource requirements are compared to resources available and capacity issues are identified and managed.

Actual Cost System

A cost system that collects costs historically as they are applied to production, and allocates indirect costs to products based on the specific costs and achieved volume of the products.

Actual Costs

The labor, material, and associated overhead costs that are charged against a job as it moves through the production process.

Actual Demand

Actual demand is composed of customer orders (and often allocations of items, ingredients, or raw materials to production or distribution) . Actual demand nets against or consumes the forecast, depending on the rules chosen over a time horizon. For example, actual demand will totally replace forecast inside the sold-out customer order backlog horizon (often called the demand time fence) , but will net against the forecast outside this horizon based on the chosen forecast consumption rule.

Actual to Theoretical Cycle Time

The ratio of the measured time required to produce a given output divided by the sum of the time required to produce a given output based on the rated efficiency of the machinery and labor operations.

Ad Valorem (Latin)

According to Value (English), For example, if a bill of lading shows a value for the cargo being carried, an Ad Valorem charge will be levied. This charge is required because the insurance liability of the carrier increases. This charge may be a levied as a percentage of the value that has been shown.

Ad Valorem Duty

A duty calculated as a percentage of the shipment value. Also see: Duty

ADA

Americans With Disabilities Act

ADAAG

Americans With Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines.

Adaptive Control

(1) The ability of a control system to change its own parameters in response to a measured change in operating conditions.(2) Machine control units in which feeds and/or speeds are not fixed. The control unit, working from feedback sensors, is able to optimize favorable situations by automatically increasing or decreasing the machining parameters. This process ensures optimum tool life or surface finish and/or machining costs or production rates.

Adaptive Smoothing

In forecasting, a form of exponential smoothing in which the smoothing constant is automatically adjusted as a function of one or many items, for example, forecast error measurement, calendar characteristics (launch, replenishment, end of life), or demand volume.

ADC

Association of Diving Contractors.
ADEC,Alaska Department of Environment Conservation.
ADF,Automatic Direction Finder
ADN,Accord du transport Dangereux par voie Navigable (European accord for the transport of dangerous good by inland waterways)
ADNR,Accord du transport Dangereux par voie Navigable pour Rhin (European accord for the transport of dangerous good on inland waterways: Rhine)
ADR,Accord du transport Dangereux par Route (European accord for the transport of dangerous good by road)
A/F,All Fast
AFL-CIO,American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations
AFRA,Average Freight Rate Assessment
AFRAMAX,A tanker of such size as to take commercial advantage under Worldscale (generally

ADCOM

Address Commission

Add-Ons

Additional charges above ocean freight.

Addendum

Authorized supplement or addition to a shipping or other transportation document that identifies additional services, changes in services and accompanying charges.

Address

A number, or a combination of numbers and/or letters, used to designate a particular warehouse location facing or slot.

Addressability

The ability to write data to different fields, or blocks of memory, in the microchip in an RFID transponder.

ADEC

Alaska Department of Environment Conservation.

ADF

Automatic Direction Finder

Administrative Code

A regulation or rule having the effect of law and promulgated by an agency to make a law specific. Such regulations are subject to Legislative approval prior to enactment.

Administrative Monetary Penalty System (AMPS )

A Canada Customs system of monetary penalties that will be imposed against violations of Canada Customs regulations.

ADN

Accord du transport Dangereux par voie Navigable (European accord for the transport of dangerous good by inland waterways)

ADNR

Accord du transport Dangereux par voie Navigable pour Rhin (European accord for the transport of dangerous good on inland waterways: Rhine)

ADR

Accord du transport Dangereux par Route (European accord for the transport of dangerous good by road)

Advance Material Request

Ordering materials before the release of the formal product design. This early release is required because of long lead times.

Advanced Planning and Scheduling

Techniques that deal with analysis and planning of logistics and manufacturing over the short, intermediate, and long-term time periods. APS describes any computer program that uses advanced mathematical algorithms or logic to perform optimization or simulation on finite capacity scheduling, sourcing, capital planning, resource planning, forecasting, demand management, and others. These techniques simultaneously consider a range of constraints and business rules to provide real-time planning and scheduling, decision support, available-to-promise, and capable-to-promise capabilities. APS often generates and evaluates multiple scenarios. Management then selects one scenario to use as the ‘official plan.’ The five main components of APS systems are demand planning, production planning, production scheduling, distribution planning, and transportation planning.

Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS)

Techniques that deal with analysis and planning of logistics and manufacturing over the short, intermediate, and long-term time periods. APS describes any computer program that uses advanced mathmatical algorithms or logic to perform optimization or simulation on finite capacity scheduling, sourcing, capital planning, resource planning, forecasting, demand management, and others. These techniques simultaneously consider a range of constraints and business rules to provide real-time planning and scheduling, decision support, available-to-promise, and capable-to-promise capabilities. APS often generates and evaluates multiple scenarios. Management then selects one scenario to use as the official plan. The five main components of an APS system are demand planning, production planning, production scheduling, distribution planning, and transportation planning.

Advanced Planning Systems

An analytic decision support tool for production scheduling. The APS applications consist of an intelligent engine that assists planners and schedulers in developing schedules. APS applications take into consideration production constraints, with the assumption that capacities are finite.

Advanced Shipment Notice (ASN)

An EDI term referring to a transaction set (ANSI 856) where the supplier sends out a notification to interested parties that a shipment is now outbound in the supply chain. This notification is list transmitted to a customer or consignor designating items shipped. The ASN may also include the expected time of arrival.

Advanced Shipping Notice

Detailed shipment information transmitted to a customer or consignee in advance of delivery, designating the contents (individual products and quantities of each) and nature of the shipment. May also include carrier and shipment specifics including time of shipment and expected time of arrival. See also: Assumed Receipt

Advanced Shipping Notice (ASN)

Detailed shipment information transmitted to a customer or consignee in advance of delivery, designating the contents (individual products and quantities of each) and nature of the shipment. May also include carrier and shipment specifics, including time of shipment and expected time of arrival. Also see: Assumed Receipt

Advice of Shipment

Notification to the purchaser that shipment has been made. Agency-A department or administrative division of a government authorized to transact certain business.

Advising Bank

Bank where a shipper negotiates documents or where documents are first presented, usually at country of origin. Also, often referred to as the negotiating bank.

Aerodynamic Drag

Wind resistance

AFFREIGHTMENT

The hiring of a ship in whole or part

AFL-CIO

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations

AFRA

Average Freight Rate Assessment

AFRAMAX

A tanker of such size as to take commercial advantage under Worldscale (generally, tankers 80,000-119,000 DWT)

AFSPS

Arrival First Sea Pilot Station (Norway)

AFSPS

Arrival First Sea Pilot Station (Norway)

AFT

At or towards the stern or rear of a ship

AFT

At or towards the stern or rear of a ship. In, near,or toward the stern of vessel.

After-Sale Service

Services provided to the customer after products have been delivered. This can include repairs, maintenance, and/or telephone support. Synonym: Field Service

Aftermarket

An aftermarket is a customer segmentation that has demand for accessory, replacement, or refurbished parts. For example, a market for new cars. There is a different market (aftermarket) for floor mats (accessory), tires and batteries (replacement), and rebuilt starter motors (refurbish). An aftermarket continues well beyond the purchase of the new car

AG

Accessibility Guidelines

Agency Tariff

A rate bureau publication that contains rates for many carriers.

Agent

An enterprise authorized to transact business for, or in the name of, another enterprise.

Agglomeration

A net advantage a company gains by sharing a common location with other companies.

Aggregate Forecast

An estimate of sales, oftentimes phased, for a grouping of products or product families produced by a facility or firm. Stated in terms of units, dollars, or both, the aggregate forecast is used for sales and production planning (or for sales and operations planning) purposes.

Aggregate Inventory

The inventory for any grouping of items or products involving multiple stock-keeping units. Also see: Base Inventory Level.

Aggregate Inventory Management

Establishing the overall level (dollar value) of inventory desired and implementing controls to achieve this goal.

Aggregate Plan

A plan that includes budgeted levels of finished goods, inventory, production backlogs, and changes in the workforce to support the production strategy. Aggregated information (e.g., product line, family) rather than product information is used, hence the name aggregate plan.

Aggregate Planning

A process to develop tactical plans to support the organization's business plan. Aggregate planning usually includes the development, analysis and maintenance of plans for total sales, total production, targeted inventory, and targeted inventory, and targeted customer backlog for families of products. The production plan is the result of the aggregate planning process. Two approaches to aggregate planning exist - production planning and sales and operations planning.

Aggregate Tender Rate

A reduced rate offered to a shipper who tenders two or more class-related shipments at one time and one place.

Aggregated Shipments

Numerous shipments from different shippers delivered to one consignee, that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment.

Agile manufacturing

Tools, techniques, and initiatives that enable a plant or company to thrive under conditions of unpredictable change. Agile manufacturing not only enables a plant to achieve rapid response to customer needs, but also includes the ability to quickly reconfigure operations–and strategic alliances–to respond rapidly to unforeseen shifts in the marketplace. In some instances, it also incorporates ‘mass customization’ concepts to satisfy unique customer requirements. In broad terms, it includes the ability to react quickly to technical or environmental surprises.

Agile reader

A generic term that usually refers to an RFID reader that can read tags operating at different frequencies or using different methods of communication between the tags and readers.

Agility

The ability to successfully manufacture and market a broad range of low-cost, high-quality products and services with short lead times and varying volumes that provide enhanced value to customers through customization. Agility merges the four distinctive competencies of cost, quality, dependability, and flexibility.

Agreement

A bargain between parties in dealing with one another such as may be applied in procurement to define terms and performance.

AGS

Arabian Gulf Service.

AGVS

see Automated Guided Vehicle System

AGW

All going well

AGW

All Going Well

AHL

Australian Hold Ladders

AHL

Australian Hold Ladders

AHP

Anchor Handling Purposes.

AHR

Antwerp Hamburg Range

AHT

Anchor Handling Tug.

AHTS

Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessel.

AHV

Anchor Handling Vessel.

AI

All Inclusive.

AI

Artificial Intelligence.

AID

Agency for Internatinal Development.

AIDC

See Automatic identification and data capture

AIGSS

Annual Inert Gas System Survey.

AIM

Accountable Item Management System.

AIMS

American Institute of Merchant Shipping.

AIMU

American Institute of Marine Underwriters.

Air Cargo

Freight that is moved by air transportation.

Air Cargo Agent

An agent appointed by an airline to solicit and process international airfreight shipments.

Air Cargo Containers

Containers designed to conform to the inside of an aircraft. There are many shapes and sizes of containers. Air cargo containers fall into three categories: 1) air cargo pallets 2) lower deck containers 3) box type containers.

Air Carrier

An enterprise that offers transportation service via air.

Air Freight

A service providing the air transportation of goods. This mode of transportation allows for decreased shipping time, low damage ratios and for certain commodities, lower shipping costs.

Air Freight Forwarder

A non-asset based firm that negotiates low shipping rates with airlines, then takes orders at a higher rate in order to make a profit using the airline’s assets to move the product.

Air Taxi

An exempt for-hire air carrier that will fly anywhere on demand; air taxis are restricted to a maximum payload and passenger capacity per plane.

Air Transport Association of America

A U.S. airline industry association.

Air Waybill

A document issued by a carrier to a shipper that supplies written evidence regarding the receipt of goods, the mode of transportation and the arrangement to deliver goods at the requested destination to the lawful holder of the bill of lading. A standard air waybill accommodates both domestic and international traffic.

Air Waybill (AWB)

A bill of lading for air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicates that the carrier has accepted the goods listed, obligates the carrier to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions.

Airport and Airway Trust Fund

A federal fund that collects passenger ticket taxes and disburses those funds for airport facilities.

AIS

Automatic identification system

Aisle

Any passageway within a storage area.

AISM

Association Internationale de Signalisation Maritime (see also IALA).

Al HSP

Aluminium Alloy, High Speed Passenger.

Al Pl Yacht

Aluminium Alloy Pleasure Yacht.

Alaskan carrier

A for-hire air carrier that operates within the state of Alaska.

Alert

See Action Message.

Algorithm

a clearly specified mathematical process for computation; a set of rules, which, if followed, produce a prescribed result.

All or None bid

An invitation to bid for more than one, or a list of items or services for which a partial award would not be made.

All Water

Term used when the transportation is completely by water.

All-Cargo Carrier

An air carrier that transports cargo only.

ALLI

Annual Load Line Inspection.

Alliance

A union of one or more companies having relationship in qualities. Supply chain alliances consist of trading partners having complimentary goals and objectives that are willing to collaborate in the areas of planning, forecasting and replenishments.

Allocated item

In an MRP system, an item for which a picking order has been released to the stockroom but not yet sent from the stockroom.

Allocation

1) A distribution of costs using calculations that may be unrelated to physical observations or direct or repeatable cause-and-effect relationships. Because of the arbitrary nature of allocations, costs based on cost causal assignment are viewed as more relevant for management decision-making. 2)

Allocation Costing

See Absorption Costing

ALP

All Passenger.

Alpha release

A very early release of a product to get preliminary feedback about the feature set and usability.

ALRS

Admiralty List of Radio Signals. British admiralty publications (8 volumes, some of them in double or triple books) informing the navigators about all the radio stations and various kind of broacasted informations such as time signals, weather & navigational warnings, positioning systems, VTS procedures and many other. They are regularly updated through the weekly published Notice to Mariners, but this work is time consuming and the actual small staffs have hardly any time to do it. An affordable electronic publication with online updating is badly needed.

Alternate Bid

(1) A bid offering alternative goods or services. (This type of offer may suffice when requirements may be met with various items or service. (2) A bid submitted which offers goods or services in substitution of those requested. Such an award would be considered only if the bid conditions allow and if the offer is acceptable.

Alternate Routing

A routing, usually less preferred than the primary routing, but resulting in an identical item. Alternate routings may be maintained in the computer or off-line via manual methods, but the computer software must be able to accept alternate routings for specific jobs.

Alternative Request for Proposals

A Request for Proposals inviting innovative proposals which would meet the needs of the using agency(ies).

AM

Amplitude Modulation.

AMC

American Maritime Congress.

American Customer Satisfaction Index

Released for the first time in October 1994, an economic indicator and cross industry measure of the satisfaction of U.S. household customers with the quality of the goods and services available to them– both those goods and services produced within the United States and those provided as imports from foreign firms that have substantial market shares or dollar sales. The ACSI is co-sponsored by the University of Michigan Business School, ASQ and the CFI Group.

American National Standards Institute

A non-profit organization chartered to develop, maintain, and promulgate voluntary U.S. national standards in a number of areas, especially with regards to setting EDI standards. ANSI is the U.S. representative to the International Standards Organization (ISO).

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

A non-profit organization chartered to develop, maintain, and promulgate voluntary US national standards in a number of areas, especially with regards to setting EDI standards. ANSI is the US representative to the International Standards Organization (ISO) .

American Society for Quality

Founded in 1946, a not-for-profit educational organization consisting of 144,000 members who are interested in quality improvement.

American Society for Quality (ASQ)

Founded in 1946, a not-for-profit educational organization consisting of 144,000 members who are interested in quality improvement.

American Society for Testing and Materials

Not-for-profit organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems and services.

American Society for Training and Development

A membership organization providing materials, education and support related to workplace learning and performance.

American Society of Transportation & Logistics

A professional organization in the field of logistics.

American Society of Transportation & Logistics

A professional organization founded in 1946 with goals of establishing, promoting and maintaining high standards of knowledge and professional training, serving as a source of information and guidance for the fields of logistics.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASCII format - simple text based data with no formatting. The standard code for information exchange among data processing systems. Uses a coded character set consisting of 7-bit coded characters (8 bits including parity check).

American Trucking Association, Inc.

A motor carrier industry association that is made up of subconferences representing various sectors of the motor carrier industry.

American Trucking Associations

A motor carrier industry association composed of sub-conferences representing various motor carrier industry sectors.

American Waterway Operators

A domestic water carrier industry association representing barge operators on inland waterways.

AMNI

Associate Member of The Nautical Institute

AMRIE

Alliance of Maritime Regional Interests in Europe.

AMS

Automated Manifest System System use in U.S.

AMS

Annual Machinery Survey.

Amtrak

The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a federally created corporation that operates most of the United States' intercity passenger rail service.

AMVER

Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System (USA).

AMVERUS

Coast Guard's Automated Mutual-Assistance Vessel Rescue System

AMWELSH 93

Americanized Welsh Coal Charter (1993)

ANF

Arrival Notification Form. A document which advises a consignee or a container operator that goods or containers have arrived at the port of discharge (BIMCO)

Animated GIF

A file containing a series of GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) images that are displayed in rapid sequence by some Web browsers, giving an animated effect. Also see: GIF.

ANPRM

Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.

ANSI

See American National Standards Institute

ANSI

American National Standards Institute.

ANSI ASC X12

American National Standards Institute Accredited Standards Committee X1(2) The committee of ANSI that is charted with setting EDI standards.

ANSI Standard

A published transaction set approved by ANSI. The standards are reviewed every six months.

ANT

Netherlands Antilles (flag)

Antenna

The tag antenna is the conductive element that enables the tag to send and receive data. Passive, low- (135 kHz) and high-frequency (13.56 MHz) tags usually have a coiled antenna that couples with the coiled antenna of the reader to form a magnetic field. UHF tag antennas can be a variety of shapes. Readers also have antennas which are used to emit radio waves. The RF energy from the reader antenna is “harvested” by the antenna and used to power up the microchip, which then changes the electrical load on the antenna to reflect back its own signals.

ANTHAM

Antwerp-Hamburg Range

ANTHAM

Antwerp-Hamburg Range

Anti-Dumping Duty

An additional import duty imposed in instances where imported goods are priced at less than the

Anticipated Delay Report

A report, normally issued by both manufacturing and purchasing to the material planning function, regarding jobs or purchase orders that will not be completed on time and explaining why the jobs or purchases are delayed and when they will be completed. This report is an essential ingredient of the closed-loop MRP system. It is normally a handwritten report. Synonym: delay report.

Anticipation Inventories

Additional inventory above basic pipeline stock to cover projected trends of increasing sales, planned sales promotion programs, seasonal fluctuations, plant shutdowns, and vacations.

Antitrust Legislation

Laws(s) enacted to prevent noncompetitive trade, supply monopolies or market control by a limited number of producers.

Any Quantity [AQ]

A rating that applies to an item regardless of weight.

Any-Quantity (AQ) rate

A rate that applies to any size shipment tendered to a carrier; no discount rate is available for large shipments.

Any-quantity rate

The same rate applies to any size shipment tendered to a carrier, no discount rate is available for large shipments.

AOR

Atlantic Ocean Region

AP

1.All purposes.2.Additional premium.3.Accounts payable

APA

Administrative Procedure Act.

APEC

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

APERAK

EDIFACT Application error and acknowledgement message

APF

Afloat Prepositioning Force.

API

American Petroleum Institute; also Application Programming Interface

API

Application Programming Interface

API

American Petroleum Institute

Applicability Statement 2

A specification for Electronic Data Interchange between businesses using the Internet’s Web page protocol, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The specification is an extension of the earlier version, Applicability Statement 1 (AS1). Both specifications were created by EDI over the Internet (EDIINT), a working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that develops secure and reliable business communications standards.

Application Service Provider

A company that offers access over the Internet to application (examples of applications include word processors, database programs, Web browsers, development tools, communication programs) and related services that would otherwise have to be located in their own computers. Sometimes referred to as ‘apps-on-tap’, ASP services are expected to become an important alternative, especially for smaller companies with low budgets for information technology. The purpose is to try to reduce a company’s burden by installing, managing, and maintaining software.

Application-to-Application

The direct interchange of data between computers, without re-keying.

Appraisal Costs

Those costs associated with the formal evaluation and audit of quality in the firm. Typical costs include inspection, quality audits, testing, calibration, and checking time.

Appropriation

A Legislative designation of a budget or funding which may only be expended for a certain purpose.

Approved Brand or Equivalent Specification

A specification referencing a certain brand and model of a product that meets the quality and performances required. This type of specification may allow bidding of other manufacturer’s brands which comply with the standards called for. Also, known as a ‘Qualified Product’.

Approved Brand Specification

A specification referencing a brand and model or certain manufacturer’s product. This specification does not allow equivalent brands.

Approved Vendor List

List of the suppliers approved for doing business. The AVL is usually created by procurement or sourcing and engineering personnel using a variety of criteria such as technology, functional fit of the product, financial stability, and past performance of the supplier.

APS

see Advanced Planning and Scheduling

APS

see Advanced Planning Systems

APU

APUs automatically shut down the main locomotive engine idle while maintaining all vital main engine systems at greatly reduced fuel consumption

AQ

see Any-quantity rate

AQI

Agriculture Quarantine Inspection.

AQL

See Acceptable Quality Level.

AR

Accounts Receivable.

ARA

Antwerp, Rotterdam, Amsterdam (range)

ARAG

Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp-Gent Range

ARAG

Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp-Gent Range

Arbitrary

(1) A fixed amount which a transportation line agrees to accept in a dividing joint rate. (2) A fixed amount added to or deducted from one station to make a rate from another station. (3) A fixed amount added to or deducted from a rate to one station to make a rate to another station. (4) An allowance added to an employee’s rate of pay in addition to regular wages, based on provisions included in the union contract.

Arbitration

A process to resolve a dispute between two parties by a decision presented by one or more disinterested and uninvolved parties.

Archival Quality

Paper products manufactured to withstand a specified time period retaining a required integrity of the original characteristics.

ARCS

Admiralty Raster Chart Service (U.K. Hydrographic office)

ARE

United Arab Emirates (flag)

ARENA

Asia North America Eastbound Rate Agreement

ARMS

Automated Requisition Management System.

Army Corps of Engineers

A federal agency responsible for the construction and maintenance or waterways.

ARO

Agreement on Rules of Origin. (GATT 1994)

ARPA

Automated Radar Plotting Aid system to assist the watorchkeeper using the radar for collision prevention.

ARPAS

Automatic Radar Plotting Aid

Arrival Notice

A notice from the delivering carrier to the Notify Party indicating the shipment's arrival date at a specific location (normally the destination) .

Arrow diagram

A planning tool to diagram a sequence of events or activities (nodes) and the interconnectivity of such nodes. It is used for scheduling and especially for determining the critical path through nodes.

ARS

Annual Cargo Refrigeration System survey.

Artificial Intelligence

A field of research seeking to understand and computerize the human thought process.

Artificial Tween Decks

Forty feet long, eight feet wide, one foot thick steel platform with hardwood flooring. Equipped with ten bullrings for securing oversized, heavy lift or wheeled cargo.

AS

Annual Survey

As Is

An indication or notice that the seller of goods will not be responsible for the condition or performance if the purchaser accepts them.

AS/RS

Automated Storage and Retrieval System

AS2

see Applicability Statement 2

ASBA

Association of Shipbrokers and Agents (U.S.A.) Inc.

ASBA II

A Type of Standard Voyage Charter Party Issued by ASBA

ASBATANKVOY

A Type of Standard Voyage Charter Party Issued by ASBA