Mobile commerce applications involve using a mobile phone to carry out financial transactions. This usually means making a payment for goods or transferring funds electronically. Transferring money between accounts and paying for purchases are electronic commerce applications. An emerging application, electronic commerce has been facilitated by developments in other areas in the mobile world, such as dual slot phones and other smarter terminals, and more standardized protocols which allow greater interactivity and therefore, more sophisticated service.
See Manufacturing Calendar
Metric tons (2,250 lbs.).
Time during which a machine cannot be utilized. Machine downtimes may occur during breakdowns, maintenance, changeovers, etc.
A term describing the process whereby machines are remotely monitored for status and problems reported and resolved automatically or maintenance scheduled by the monitoring systems.
The environment external to a business, including technological, economic, natural, and regulatory forces that marketing efforts cannot control.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
Marine Accident Investigation Branch
A passageway wide enough to permit the easy flow of equipment, supplies, and personnel, it generally runs the length of the building.
A term sometimes generically used to refer to an organization’s central computer system. Specifically the largest class of computer systems manufactured.
Maintenance, Repair, and Operating supplies
Items used in support of general operations and maintenance such as maintenance supplies, spare parts, and consumables used in the manufacturing process and supporting operations.
Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Supplies (MRO)
Items used in support of general operations and maintenance, such as maintenance supplies, spare parts, and consumables used in the manufacturing process and supporting operations.
A for-hire certificated air carrier that has annual operating revenues of $1 billion or more; the carrier usually operates between major population centers.
Make to Order (Manufacture to Order)
A manufacturing process strategy where the trigger to begin manufacture of a product is an actual customer order or release rather than a market forecast. For make-to-order products, more than 20% of the value added takes place after the receipt of the order or release, and all necessary design and process documentation is available at the time of order receipt.
Make to Stock (Manufacture to Stock)
A manufacturing process strategy where finished product is continually held in plant or warehouse inventory to fulfill expected incoming orders or releases based on a forecast.
The act of deciding whether to produce an item internally or buy it from an outside supplier. Factors to consider in the decision include costs, capacity availability, proprietary and/or specialized knowledge, quality considerations, skill requirements, volume, and timing.
A manufacturing process strategy where the trigger to begin manufacture of a product is an actual customer order or release, rather than a market forecast. For Make-to-Order products, more than 20% of the valueadded takes place after the receipt of the order or release, and all necessary design and process documentation is available at time of order receipt.
A manufacturing method in which finished goods are produced and stocked prior to receipt of a customer order. It uses a forecast based on past demand history to initiate production of end items when inventory has fallen below desired levels, instead of waiting until a final quantity and configuration is described on a customer order.
Management of All Logistics
The effective management of all costs associated with logistics functions and activities so as to minimize their sum across the product supply chain.
A document which describes individual orders contained within a shipment.
Manufacturing Technology Program.
Manufacture Cycle Time
The average time between commencement and completion of a manufacturing process, as it applies to make-to-stock products.Calculation: [Average # of units in WIP]/[Average daily output in units]
One who produces a product through assembly or combination of raw materials or components. In some instances the manufacturer may not engage in the production except to control and specify the method and design of the item.
One who sells goods for several firms but does not take title to them.
One who sells goods for several firms but does not take title to them.
A calendar used in inventory and production planning functions that consecutively numbers only the working days so that the component and work order scheduling may be done based on the actual number of workdays available. Synonyms: M-Day Calendar, Planning Calendar, Production Calendar, Shop Calendar
Manufacturing Capital Asset Value
‘The asset value of the ”Manufacturing fixed assets” after allowance for depreciation. Examples of equipment are SMT placement machines, conveyors, Auto guided vehicles, robot cells, testers, X-ray solder machines, Burn-in chambers, Logic testers, Auto packing equipment, PLC station controllers, Scanning equipment, PWB magazines.’
Manufacturing Execution Systems
Programs and systems that participate in shop floor control, including programmed logic controllers and process control computers for direct and supervisory control of manufacturing equipment, process information systems that gather historical performance information, then generate reports, graphical displays, and alarms that inform operations personnel what is going on in the plant currently and a very short history into the past. Quality control information is also gathered and a laboratory information management system may be part of this configuration to tie process conditions to the quality data that are generated. Thereby, cause-and-effect relationships can be determined. The quality data at times affect the control parameters that are used to meet product specifications either dynamically or off line.
Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES)
Programs and systems that participate in shop-floor control, including programmed logic controllers and process control computers for direct and supervisory control of manufacturing equipment; process information systems that gather historical performance information, then generate reports; graphical displays; and alarms that inform operations personnel what is going on in the plant currently and a short history into the past. Quality control information is also gathered - a laboratory information management system may be part of this configuration to tie process conditions to the quality data that are generated. Thereby, cause-and-effect relationships can be determined. The quality data at times affect the control parameters that are used to meet product specifications, either dynamically or offline.
Manufacturing Lead Time
The total time required to manufacture an item, exclusive of lower-level purchasing lead time. For make-to-order products, it's the length of time between the release of an order to the production process and shipment to the final customer. For make-to-stock products, it's the length of time between the release of an order to the production process and receipt into finished goods inventory. Included are order preparation time, queue time, set-up time, run time, move time, inspection time, and put-away time. Synonym: Manufacturing Cycle Time.
Manufacturing Resource Planning
A method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning in dollars, and has a simulation capability to answer what-if questions. It is made up of a variety of processes, each linked together: business planning, production planning , master production scheduling, material requirements planning, capacity requirements planning, and the execution support systems for capacity and material. Output from these systems is integrated with financial reports such as the business plan, purchase commitment report, shipping budget, and inventory projections in dollars. Manufacturing resource planning is a direct outgrowth and extension of closed-loop MRP.
Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II)
A method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning in dollars, and has a simulation capability to answer what-if questions. It consists of a variety of processes, each linked together: business planning, production planning (sales and operations planning) , master production scheduling, material requirements planning, capacity requirements planning, and the execution support systems for capacity and material. Output from these systems is integrated with financial reports, such as business plan, purchase commitment report, shipping budget, and inventory projections in dollars. Manufacturing resource planning is a direct outgrowth and extension of closed-loop MRP.
Military Assistance Program.
An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet 3 objectives:
See Maritime Administration.
Maritime Administration (U.S.)
Marine Assistance Request Broadcasts.
The cost to produce one additional unit of output. The change in total variable cost resulting from a one-unit change in output.
International Conference on technologies for Marine Environment preservation.
Marine Cargo Insurance - Average: Average
A term in marine cargo insurance signifying loss or damage to merchandise.
Marine Cargo Insurance - FPA: FPA- Free of Particular Average
A provision in a marine cargo insurance policy that no claim shall be paid for damage to goods in the course of a voyage unless a loss is sustained that totals or exceeds a certain percentage of the value as specified in the policy. The object of such a provision is the avoidance of petty claims.
Marine Cargo Insurance - General Average
A loss arising out of a voluntary sacrifice made of any part of a shipment or cargo to prevent loss of the whole and for the benefit of all persons concerned.
Marine Cargo Insurance - Open Policy: A
cargo insurance policy that is an open contract; i.e. it provides protection for all of an exporter
Ensure materials and products are available for production and delivery to customers.
Maritime Systems Technology program (U.S.)
Maintain the lowest possible level of inventory.
Maritime Administration (Mar Ad)
A U.S. government agency, not actively involved in vessel operation, that administers laws for maintenance of a merchant marine for the purposes of defense and commerce.
In marketing, the total demand that would exist within a defined customer group in a given geographical area during a particular time period given a known marketing program.
The absence of effective competition for railroads from other carriers and modes for the traffic to which the rail rate applies. The Staggers Act stated that market dominance does not exist if the rate is below the revenue-to-variable-cost ratio of 160 percent in 1981 and 170 percent in 1983.
The commerce sources which determine availability of goods and services and the costs that are derived from the rate of trade with those sources.
A group of potential customers sharing some measurable characteristics based on demographics, psychographics, lifestyle, geography, benefits, etc.
Warehouse positioned to replenish customer inventory assortments and afford maximum inbound transport consolidation economies from inventory origin points with relatively short-haul local delivery.
Letters, numbers, and other symbols placed on cargo packages to make easy identification.
Marks and Numbers
Marks and numbers placed on goods used to identify a shipment or parts of a shipment.
Marine Pollution Prevention (International Convention) MARS Nautical Institute Marine Accident Reporting System
Key strategic relationships. This has emerged as perhaps the key competitive advantage and barrier to entry of e-marketplaces. Get the big players in the fold first, offering equity if necessary.
Marine Accident Reporting Scheme Created by the Nautical Institute NI, the report are anonymous and do not provide any name of persons, ships or companies. The are published monthly in the NI publication 'Seaways'.The reports can be Emailed to email@example.com or faxed to Captain R.Beedel FNI 17 Estuary Drive Felixstowe Suffolk IP11 9TL UK.
Marshaller or Marshalling Agent
This is a service unique to international trade and relates to an individual or firm that specializes in one or more of the activities preceding Main Carriage, such as consolidation, packing, marking, sorting of merchandise, inspection, storage, etc. References state that Marshaling Agent, Consolidation Agent and Freight Forwarder all have the same meaning.
Mandatory Annual Survey (SOLAS,MARPOL)
The creation of a high-volume product with large variety so that a customer may specify his or her exact model out of a large volume of possible end items, while manufacturing cost is low because of the large volume. An example is a personal computer order in which the customer may specify processor speed, memory size, hard disk size and speed, removable storage device characteristics, and many other options when PCs are assembled on one line and at a low cost.
Master Air Waybill
The air waybill of lading that provides data on a consolidated shipment of goods. The consolidator is shown as the shipper.
Master Air Waybill (MAWB)
The bill of lading issued by air carriers to their customers.
A large box that is used to pack a number of smaller boxes or containers. Aids in protecting the smaller cartons or packages and reduces the number of cartons to be handled during the material handling process.
Master Production Schedule
The master level or top level schedule used to set the production plan in a manufacturing facility.
Material Acquisition Costs
One of the elements comprising a company's total supply chain management costs. These costs consist of the following:
1. Materials (Commodity) Management and Planning All costs associated with the supplier sourcing, contract negotiation and qualification, and the preparation, placement, and tracking of a purchase order - including all costs related to buyer/planners.
2. Supplier Quality Engineering: The costs associated with the determination, development/certification, and monitoring of suppliers' capabilities to fully satisfy the applicable quality and regulatory requirements.
3. Inbound Freight and Duties: Freight costs associated with the movement of material from a vendor to the buyer, including all associated administrative tasks. Duties are those fees and taxes levied by government for moving purchased material across international borders. Customs broker fees should also be included in this category.
4. Receiving and Put Away: all costs associated with taking possession of material and storing it. Note - inventory-carrying costs are normally covered in a separate worksheet.
5. Incoming Inspection: All costs associated with the inspection and testing of received materials to verify compliance with specifications.
The ratio of the sum of the localized raw material weights to the weight of the finished product.
Material Requirements Planning
A set of techniques that uses bill of material data, inventory data, and the master production schedule to calculate requirements for materials. It is a software based production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Although it is not common nowadays, it is possible to conduct the MRP calculation by hand as well.
Material Requirements Planning (MRP)
A decision-making methodology used to determine the timing and quantities of materials to purchase.
Material Safety Data Sheet
A document that is part of the materials information system and accompanies the product. Prepared by the manufacturer, the MSDS provides information regarding the safety and chemical properties and the long-term storage, handling, and disposal of the product. Among other factors, the MSDS describes the hazardous components of a product, how to treat leaks, spills, and fires, and how to treat improper human contact with the product. Also see: Hazardous Materials
The physical handling of products and materials between procurement and shipping.
Inbound logistics from suppliers through the production process. The movement and management of materials and products from procurement through production.
The materials management function that attempts to coordinate materials supply with materials demand.
Matrix Organizational Structure
An organization structure in which two (or more) channels of command budget responsibility, and performance measurement exist simultaneously. For example, both product and functional forms of organization could be implemented simultaneously; in other words, the product and functional managers have equal authority and employees report to both managers.
The lowest inventory quantity that is desired at a ship to location or selling location. This quantity will over-ride the forecast number if the forecast climbs above the MAX. Maximum stock
The planned maximum allowable inventory for an item based on its planned lot size and target safety stock.
Maximum Order Quantity
An order quantity modifier applied after the lot size has been calculated that limits the order quantity to a pre-established maximum.
Distress Signal (spoken word).
Installations character for Centralized Monitoring and Control systems for machinery.
Modular Cargo Delivery System.
Marine Casualty Response Center.
Marine Custody Transfer Measurement
The arithmetic average of a group of values. Synonym: Arithmetic Mean.
Forty cubic feet; used in water transportation ratemaking.
Marine eCommerce Association
The middle value in a set of measured values when the items are arranged in order of magnitude. If there is no single middle value, the median is the mean of the two middle values.
Medium Lot Storage
A medium lot is generally defined as a quantity of material which will require one to three pallet stacks stored to maximum height. Thus, the term refers to relatively small lots as distinguished from definitely large or small lots.
Marine Engine and Equipment Manufacturers Association
Marine Environmentally High Risk Areas.
Medium earth orbit (satellite configuration)
Marine Environmental Protection.
Maritime Environment Protection CommitteeIMO branch dealing, among other, with the construction of tankers. The number of the meeting is often added to the acronym so that in the Autumn 2000 the next meeting will be MEPC46.
Inland transportation performed by an inland carrier contracted by and for the account of the shipper or consignee.
South American Common Market.
Merge In Transit
The process of 'merging' shipments from suppliers and going directly to the buyer or to the store, bypassing the seller. A 'drop shipment' from several vendors to one buyer.
The combination of two or more carriers into one company that will own, manage, and operate the properties that previously operated separately.
The system of employee promotion that is based upon an evaluation of abilities and accomplishments rather than personal favoritism or political appointment.
Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee
1.Marine Evacuation System.2.Mobile Earth Station
See Manufacturing Execution Systems.
The EDIFACT term for a transaction set. A message is the collection of data, organized in segments, exchanged by trading partners engaged in EDI. Typically, a message is an electronic version of a document associated with a common business transaction, such as a purchase order or shipping notice. A message begins with a message header segment, which identifies the start of the message (e.g., the series of characters representing one purchase order) . The message header segment also carries the message type code, which identifies the business transaction type. EDIFACT's message header segment is called UNH; in ANSI X12 protocol, the message header is called ST. A message ends with a message trailer segment, which signals the end of the message (e.g., the end of one purchase order) . EDIFACT's message trailer is labeled UNT; the ANSI X12 message trailer is referred to as SE.
‘An optional HTML tag that is used to specify information about a web document. Some search engines use ‘’spiders” to index web pages. These spiders read the information contained within a page’s META tag. So in theory, an HTML or web page author has the ability to control how their site is indexed by search engines and how and when it will ”come up” on a user’s search. The META tag can also be used to specify an HTTP or URL address for the page to ”jump” to after a certain amount of time. This is known as Client-Pull. What this means, is a web page author can control the amount of time a web page is up on the screen as well as where the browser will go next.’
See Performance Measures.
An intermodal movement in which the shipment is moved from a foreign country to the U.S. by water and then moved across the U.S. by railroad to an interior, non-port city, or vice versa for exports from a non-port city.
An allowance, based upon distance, that railroads give to shippers using private railcars.
A rate based upon the number of miles the commodity is shipped.
A regular route for pickup of mixed loads from several suppliers. For example, instead of each of five suppliers sending a truckload per week to meet the weekly needs of the customer, one truck visits each of the suppliers on a daily basis before delivering to the customer’s plant. Five truckloads per week are still shipped, but each truckload contains the daily requirement from each supplier. Also see: Consolidation
Waste paper that is generated in the paper manufacturing process and then recycled or introduced again into the development or repulping process.
Min Max System
‘A type of order point replenishment system where the ”min” (minimum) is the order point, and the ”max” (maximum) is the ”order up to” inventory level. The order quantity is variable and is the result of the max minus the available and on-order inventory. An order is recommended when the sum of the available and on-order inventory is at or below the min.’
An intermodal movement in which the shipment is moved from a foreign country to the U.S. by water and then moved across the U.S. by railroad to a destination that is a port city, or vice versa for exports from a U.S. port city.
Least charge for which a shipment will be handled.
The amount of stock on hand that has been designated as safety stock.
Minimum Truckload Weight
Least weight at which a shipment is handled at a Truckload (TL) rate.
The shipment weight the carrier's tariff specifies as the minimum weight required to use the TL or CL rate; the rate discount volume.
A business that is owned or controlled by a person or persons who are certified to have minority status.
Misguided Capacity Plans
Plans or forecasts for capacity utilization, which are based on inaccurate assumptions or input data.
Is any equipment, asset, process, or item that is required for a customer to maintain operations.
The movement of both regulated and exempt commodities in the same vehicle at the same time.
Shipment consisting of items described in and rated under two or more rate items within a tariff.
An abbreviation for Mini Land Bridge Containers moving from a foreign country by vessel, and then sent to an inland point in the U.S. or elsewhere by land transportation (rail or truck). See also Land Bridge.
The relative use made of the modes of transportation, the statistics used include ton-miles, passenger-miles, and revenue.
The relative use that companies make of transportation modes; the statistics include ton-miles, passenger-miles, and revenue.
More or Less Charterers Option
More or Less Owners Option
An unfair advantage or control of the market place with regard to the trade of certain goods or services. This type of exclusive marketing advantage serves to restrict competition in that particular activity.
Main ocean vessel in a liner service designated to move containers from set origin points to set destination ports/points on a regular basis.
An enterprise that offers service via motor carriage.
Customized and standard relocation services to meet the customer needs for availability, asset protection, data protection, and time constraints.
A document used to move inventory within a facility. Warehouse management systems use move tickets to direct and track material movements. In a paperless environment the electronic version of a move ticket is often called a task or a trip.
Movement of Goods:
The transfer of goods from one location to another.
see Master Production Schedule
See Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Supplies.
Maintenance, repair, and operating items--office supplies, for example.
Material Requirements Planning
See Material Requirements Planning.
See Manufacturing Resource Planning.
Material Safety Data Sheet
See Material Safety Data Sheet.
This barcode is a variable length barcode that can encode up to 15 numeric digits. Checksum generation is dependent on the value of the checksum parameter. The following table indicates the value of the checksum property and the type of checksum created. Setting, Description, 0, one modulus 10 checksum, 1, two modulus 10 checksums, 2, one modulus 11 checksum/one modulus 10 checksum.
Metric Ton. 1 MT = 2,204.62lbs or 35.314 cft.
Multimode Transport Operator
Multi-Block Course Pattern
An arrangement of warehousing units in which two uni-block patterns are used.
The ability to process orders using a variety of currencies for pricing and billing.
A single shipment that includes multiple deliveries at separate destination locations.
Pertaining to the ability to process orders in many different country-specific languages using voice and text.
A single shipment that includes multiple pick-ups at separate origin locations.
Pertaining to individuals who are certified to perform a variety of tasks.
Multi-Step Competitive Bidding
A competitive purchasing method requesting that bidders submit a technical proposal as the initial process. Negotiations may take place with regard to technicalities and job completion processes. Following the first step a competitive price bid is requested. The price bid is not negotiable.
A company that both produces and markets products in different countries.
Awarding contracts to more than one bidder for the same types of goods or similar items. This would be appropriate under circumstances when a single contractor would not be able to adequately serve the entire area that needs to be provided for.
A railroad rate that is lower for shipping more than one carload at a time.